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MANNONI Dominique-Octave
Prospero and Caliban: The Psychology of Colonization (1991)
Edited: 201506200104
The problem of colonization did not only concern the overseas countries. The process of decolonization – which is in any case far from complete in those countries – is also under way at home, in our schools, in female demands for equality, in the education of small children and in many other fields ... If certain cultures prove capable of destroying others ... the destructive forces brought forth by these cultures also act internally.
Dominique-Octave Mannoni (29 August 1899, Sologne – 30 July 1989)

Commentaar LT: Het grote verschil tussen de kolonisering door Europa en die door de USA, is het feit dat de eerste zich afspeelde buiten het eigen grondgebied terwijl de USA een continent permanent gingen bezetten. De Europese kolonisering werd als beëindigd beschouwd toen de blanke bezetter het grondgebied verliet.

In de USA was de eliminatie van de autochtone bevolking (de indianen) een vermeende voorwaarde om zich het land toe te eigenen. De import van zwarte slaven was in feite niets anders dan het delocaliseren van de bevolking zonder bezetting van diens gronden. Het zogenaamde einde van de 'geïmporteerde' kolonisering veroorzaakt een direct conflict op het 'eigen' grondgebied. De 'destructive forces' - waarover Mannoni het heeft - komen in oppositie te staan met de vroegere verdrukten. De volgehouden wapenwet in de USA heeft ook daarmee te maken: het wapen als terugvalbasis wanneer de staat faalt. De geweldadige excessen met racistische drijfveren zijn dan ook terug te voeren op de nooit beëindigde relatie van verdrukker en verdrukte binnen de eigen grenzen. De huidskleur van de agressor of die van het slachtoffer zet de deur open voor een vlugge racistische interpretatie. Terwijl de dieperliggende oorzaken van de agressie te zoeken zijn in de voortdurende relatie verdrukker-verdrukte.

De uitspraak 'we are all immigrants' gaat voorbij aan het historische gegeven dat er importeurs en geïmporteerden waren.

De visie van Franz Fanon is dan ook verontrustend: 'La zone habitée par les colonisés n'est pas complémentaire de la zone habitée par les colons. Ces deux zones s'opposent, mais non au service d'une unité supérieure. Elles obéissent au principe d'exclusion réciproque : il n'y a pas de conciliation possible, l'un des termes est de trop.' (Les damnés de la terre)
The LandReport
The Land Report 100 - 100 largest landowners in the United States - private empires
Edited: 201411161449
In the USA the magazine 'The LandReport 2014' published for the fourth time its list of the 100 largest landowners in the USA. Some of them own large estates in Canada too. And things go fast: in all, private holdings increased by nearly 500,000 acres since the 2013 Land Report 100 was completed.

On 1 is cable tycoon John Malone, owner of Liberty Global (Telenet Vlaanderen, UPC Holland, Ziggo Holland, etc.), with 2,2 million acres (history: +290.100 acres - the Bell Ranch from the Lane family - in 2010; + 1.000.000 acres - in Maine and New Hampshire from GMO Renewable Resources - in 2011). On 2 is Ted Turner with 2 million acres. On 3 is the Emmerson Family with 1,860 million acres. To estimate the span: on Number 100, the Butler Heirs, own 0.1 million acres.



The names:
1. John Malone
2. Ted Turner
3. Emmerson Family
4. Brad Kelley
5. Reed Family
6. Irving family
7. Singleton Family
8. King Ranch Heirs
9. Stan Kroenke
10. Pingree Heirs

11. Ford Family
12. Lykes Heirs
13. Briscoe Family
14. W.T. Waggoner Estate
15. O’Connor Heirs
16. Philip Anschutz
17. Drummond Family
18. Simplot Family
19. Holding Family
20. Hughes Family

21. Malone Mitchell 3rd
22. Wilks Brothers
23. Collins Family
24. Nunley Family
25. Jeff Bezos
26. Collier Family
27. Kokernot Heirs
28. Anne Marion
29. Babbitt Heirs
30. Llano Partners

31. Mike Smith
32. D.R. Horton
33. Lyda Family
34. Jones Family
34. Killam Family
34. True Family
37. Reynolds Family
38. Paul Fireman
39. D.K. Boyd
40. Koch Family

41. Bidegain Family
41. Benjy Griffith III
43. Scott Heirs
44. Louis Moore Bacon
45. East Family Foundation
46. Hearst Family
47. Gage Heirs
48. Cassidy Heirs
49. Eugene Gabrych
49. Langdale Family

51. Bogle Family
52. Hunt Family
53. Williams Family
54. Robert A. Funk
55. McCoy & Remme Families
56. Russell Gordy
57. Broadbent Family
57. Irwin Heirs
59. Sugg Family
60. Fasken Family

61. Mike Mechenbier
62. Cogdell Family
62. Fanjul Family
64. JA Ranch Heirs
65. Ellison Family
66. Bass Family
66. Boswell Family
66. Eddy Family
66. Emily Garvey Bonavia
66. William Henry Green Heirs

71. David Murdock
72. Wells Family
73. L-A-D Foundation
74. Gerald J. Ford
75. Stefan Soloviev
76. Patrick Broe
77. Harrison Family
77. Lane Family
77. Oppliger Family
80. Crosby Family

81. Ellwood Heirs
81. Monahan Family
83. Davis Heirs
84. Booth Family
84. Brite Heirs
86. Reese Family
87. Milliken Family
88. Roxanne Quimby
89. Moursund Family
90. Scharbauer Family

91. Clayton Williams Jr.
92. Stan Harper
93. Frank VanderSloot
94. Linnebur Family
95. Richard Evans
96. Luther King
97. Arthur Nicholas
98. Robinson Family
99. Riggs Family
100. Butler Heirs (0.1 million acres)

See the full list with comments here (link to the website of The LandReport)

P.M.: 1 acre = 0,4047 ha = 0,0040469 km²



Reminder: In 2002 Kevin Cahill published a book 'Who owns Britain. The hidden facts behind landownership in the UK and Ireland' (ref MERS 20020079). In 2006 his book 'Who owns the World' (ref MERS 20060030) gave a global scoop. Both books didn't get the media attention they diserved.
Solo
1947: reclame voor Solo-margarine: "Levenslust heeft zij te koop"
Edited: 194700440905
niet het product maar de positieve gevolgen van het product worden aangeprezen: levenslust, gezondheid en levenskracht

SONGIA Eugenio
L'era fascista - fascistisch tijdperk in Italië onder Mussolini begint op 29 oktober 1922, de dag na de Mars op Rome
Edited: 192210290000
L'era fascista fu creata, appunto, dal fascismo, adottando come data di inizio quella del giorno successivo alla marcia su Roma, che avvenne il 28 ottobre 1922.
Il primo anno di quella che fu l'era fascista iniziava dunque il 29 ottobre 1922 e terminava il 28 ottobre 1923; il 29 ottobre 1923 iniziava il secondo anno, e così via.
L'obbligo di aggiungere, in numero romano, l'anno dell'era fascista accanto a quello dell'era cristiana entrò in vigore a partire dal 29 ottobre 1927, in seguito a una circolare del 25 dicembre 1926.
La data della sua cessazione può essere considerata il 25 luglio 1943, quando venne fatto cessare il regime fascista. Tuttavia, dal 15 settembre 1943 alla fine di aprile 1945 fu ancora in vigore nella Repubblica sociale italiana, ossia nell'Italia settentrionale governata dal fascismo.
Talvolta, i libri dell'epoca riportano solo l'anno dell'era fascista, e non la data dell'era cristiana. In questo, come in altri casi, può essere utile il modulo seguente, che permette di realizzare velocemente a quale periodo del calendario gregoriano si riferisce un determinato anno dell'era fascista.

Omrekeningstabel voor datering van boeken, die vaak enkel het fascistische jaartal droegen, ook in vertalingen: