Lijst van de Belgische kunstschilders met geboorte- en sterfdatum (uiteraard niet exhaustief)
Pierre Abattucci 1871-1942, Victor Abeloos 1881-1965, Léon Abry 1857-1905, Robert Aerens 1883-1969, Pierre Alechinsky 1927, Fernand Allard l'Olivier 1883-1933, Gerard Alsteens 1940, Henri Anspach 1882-1979, Armand Apol 1879-1950, Berthe Art 1857-193, Alphonse Asselbergs 1839-1916, Alphonse Backeljau, Albert Baertsoen 1866-1922, Edgar Baes 1837-1909, Firmin Baes 1874-1934, Lionel Baes 1839-1913, Giljom Ballewijns 1875-1944, Georges-Marie Baltus 1874-1967, Willem Battaille 1867-1933, Charles Baugniet 1814-1886, Euphrosine Beernaert 1831-1901, Charles-Louis Bellis 1837-?, Hubert Bellis 1831-1902, Fred Bervoets 1942, Franz Binjé 1835-1900, Charles Bisschops 1894-1975 Maurice Blieck 1876-1922 Anna Boch 1848-1936 Eugène Boch 1855-1941, Gaston Bogaert 1918 Jean-Marie Boomputte 1947 Guglielmo Borremans 1672-? Michaël Borremans 1963 Andrée Bosquet 1900-1980 Paul Boudry 1913-1976 François-Joseph Boulanger 1819-1873 Hippolyte Boulenger 1837-1874 Paul Bril 1554-1626 Eugène Broerman 1861-1932 Jean Brusselmans 1884-1953, Félix Buelens 1850-1921, Gustaaf Buffel 1886-1972, François Bulens 1857-1939, Pol Bury 1922-2005, Buysse Georges 1864-1916 Henriëtte Calais 1863-1951 Jacques Callaert 1921-1996 Charles-René Callewaert 1893-1936 Jean Capeinick 1838-1890 Jan-Karel Carpentero 1784-1823 Evariste Carpentier 1845-1922 François Cautaerts 1810-1881 Ceramano 1831-1909 Achille Chainaye 1862-1915 Philippe de Champaigne 1602-1674 Frantz Charlet 1862-1928 Albert Ciamberlani 1864-1956 Alexandre Clarys 1857-1920 Emile Claus 1849-1924 Henri Cleenewerck 1818-1901 Emile Clerico 1902-1976 Louis Clesse 1889-1961 Jan Cobbaert 1909-1995 Hubert Coeck 1871-1944 André Collin 1862-1930 (20030076:72) Willie Cools 1932-2011 Joseph Coosemans (zie 19820116) Eugène Jean Copman 1839-1930 Omer Coppens 1864-1926 Albéric Coppieters 1878-1902 Oscar Cornu 1866-1939 Albert Cortvriendt 1875-? Edouard-Louis Cottart 1842-1913 Jan Cox 1919-1980 Jules Cran 1876-1926 Paul Craps 1877-1937 Luc-Peter Crombé 1920-2005 Louis Crépin 1828-1887 Freddy Danneel 1929-2008 Robert Davaux ca. 1885-1965 Hugo Debaere 1958-1994 Julien De Beul 1868-? Laurent De Beul 1841-1872 Gaston De Biemme Marie De Bièvre 1865-1940 Nathalie de Bourtzoff Sophie de Bourtzoff Adriaan De Braekeleer 1818-1904 Evarist De Buck 1892-1974 Gilbert Declercq 1946 René De Coninck 1907-1978 Jan De Cooman 1893-1949 Herman De Cuyper 1904-1992 William Degouve de Nuncques 1867-1935 Babette Degraeve 1965 Henri De Graer 1856-1915 Henry de Groux 1866-1930 Carlos De Haes 1826-1898 Louise De Hem 1866-1933 Nicaise De Keyser 1813-1887 (zie 19790122) Raoul De Keyser 1930 Victor De Knop 1883-1979 Raymond de la Haye 1882-1914 Roland Delcol (1942- Willem Delsaux 1862-1945 Paul Delvaux 1897-1994 Jean Delville 1867-1953 Jean Delvin 1853-1922 Ghislaine de Menten de Horne 1908-1995 Pieter De Mets (zie 19790122) Thomas Deputter 1896-1972 Michel De Roeck 1954-2005 Valerius De Saedeleer 1867-1941 Edmond De Schampheleer 1824-1899 Jan de Smedt 1905-1954 Prosper De Troyer 1880-1961 Edouard De Vigne 1808-1866 Emma De Vigne 1850-1898 Félix De Vigne 1806-1842 Albert De Vos 1868-1950 Liéven De Winne 1821-1880 Marguérite Dielman 1865-1942 Leon Dieperinck 1917 Marthe Donas 1885-1967 Christian Dotremont 1922-1979 Albert Droesbeke 1896-1929 Edmond Dubrunfaut 1920-2007 Hugo Duchateau 1938 Julien Joseph Ducorron 1770-1848 Henri Dupont 1890-1961 Mathilde Dupré-Lesprit 1836-1913 Jef Dutillieu 1876-1960 Albert Dutry 1860-1918 Marie Dutry-Tibbaut 1871-1953 Edmond Dutry 1897-1959 Jean-Marie Dutry 1899-1986 Jacobus Josephus Eeckhout 1793-1861 Alfred Elsen 1850-1914 Albert Embrechts 1914-1997 Peter Engels 1959 Joe English 1882-1918 Henri Evenepoel 1872-1899 Desire Everaerts 1824-1879 Emile Fabry 1865-1966 Pieter Faes 1750-1814 Rombout Faydherbe 1649-1674 Willy Finch 1854-1930 Gustave Flasschoen 1868-1940 Jules Fonteyne 1878-1964 Jean-Jacques Gailliard 1890-1976 Louis Gallait 1810-1887 Mary Gasparioli 1856-? Lucas Gassel 1500-1570 Willem Geets 1838-1919 Joseph Louis Geirnaert 1790-1859 Victor-Jules Génisson 1805-1860 Ferdinand Giele 1867-1929 Joseph Gindra 1862-1938 Hubert Glansdorff 1877-1963 Albert Gregorius 1774-1853 Godfried Guffens 1823-1901 Lucien Guinotte 1925-1989 Paul Hagemans 1884-1959 Louis Haghe 1806-1885 René Hansoul 1910-1979 Gaston Haustraete 1878-1949 Pierre-Jean Hellemans 1787-1845, Valentin Henneman 1861-1930, Charles Hermans 1839-1924, Paul Hermans 1898-1972, Paul Hermanus 1859-1911, Adrien-Joseph Heymans 1839-1921, Marie Howet 1897-1984 Henri Huklenbrok ca. 1870-1952 Léon Huygens 1876-1919 Florent Isenbaert 1827-? Jacob Jacobs 1812-1879 William Jelley 1856-1932 Antoine Jorissen 1884-1962 Luc Kaisin 1900-1963 Franz Kegeljan 1847-1921 Ignace Kennis 1888- 1973 Anna Kernkamp 1868-1947 Renée Keuller 1899-1981 Fernand Khnopff 1858-1921 Margot Knockaert 1910-1997 Eugène Laermans 1864-1940 Pierre Langlet 1848-? Paul Lauters 1806-1875 Georges-Émile Lebacq 1876-1950 Stéphanie Leblon, 1970 Henri Lehon 1809-1872 Charles Leickert 1816-1907 Hendrik Leys 1815-1869 Anne Liebhaberg 1955- Peter Joseph Linnig 1777-1836 Jan Jozef Linnig 1815-1891 Willem Jozef Linnig Sr. 1819-1885 Willem Linnig Jr. 1842-1890 Benjamin Linnig 1860-1929 Zoë Linnig 1893-1979 Diane Linnig 1894-1978 Lambert Lombard 1505-1566 Jean-François Luypaert 1893-1954 Henry Luyten 1859-1945 Armand Maclot 1877-1959 (zie 19820116) Jacques Madyol 1871-1950 Jo Maes 1923 Mil Maeyens 1882-1952 René Magritte 1898-1967 Maurice Mareels 1893-1976 Ferdinand Marinus 1808-1890 Paul-Jean Martel 1878-1944 Hervé Martijn 1961- Armand Massonet 1892-1979 Paul Masui-Castrique 1888-1981 Joseph Maswiens 1828-1880 Didier Matrige 1961-2008 Jean Mayné 1854-1924 Marten Melsen (zie 19790122) Jules Merckaert 1872-1924 Charles Mertens 1865-1919 Guillaume Michiels 1909-1997 Sonja Michiels 1945 Ernest Midy 1877-1938 Frans Minnaert 1929-2011 Willy Minders 1913-1977 (zie 19820116) Florent Mols 1811-1896 Robert Mols 1848-1903 Constant Montald 1862-1944 Louis Adrien Moons 1769-1844 Frank Mortelmans (zie 19790122) Auguste Musin 1852-1923 François Musin 1820-1888 Balthasar-Paul Ommeganck 1755-1826 Marie Ommeganck 1784-1857 Maria-Jacoba Ommeganck 1760-1849 Alfred Ost 1884-1945 Henri Ottevaere 1870 -1944 Pierre Paulus 1881-1959 Kurt Peiser 1887-1962 Henri Louis Permeke 1848-1912 Constant Permeke 1886-1952 Erik Pevernagie 1939 Louis Pevernagie 1904-1970 Léon Philippet 1843-1906 Rudi Pillen 1931-2014 Albert Pinot 1875-1962 Marc Plettinck 1923-2006 André Plumot 1829-1906 Pieter-Frans Poelman 1801-1826 Renée Prinz 1883-1973 Joseph Quinaux 1822-1895 Jean Raine 1927-1986 Armand Rassenfosse 1862-1934 Roger Raveel 1921-2013 Frans Regoudt 1906-1977 Georges Reinheimer 1850-? Julia Rijsheuvels Léon Riket 1876-1938 Lucien Rion 1875-1939 Louis Robbe 1806-1887 Daniël-Adolphe Roberts-Jones 1806-1874 Jean-Baptiste Robie 1821-1910 Ernest Rocher 1872-1938 François Roffiaen 1820-1898 Georges Rogy 1897-1981 Alfred Ronner 1851-1901 Alice Ronner 1857-1957 Emma Ronner 1860-1936 Renée Rops 1887-1973 Alfred Ruytincx 1871-1908 Albert Saverys 1886-1964 Jules Schmalzigaug 1882-1917 Antoine Schyrgens 1890-1981 Jacques Schyrgens 1923 Joseph Schubert 1816-1885 Lode Sebregts 1906-2002 Auguste-Ernest Sembach 1854-? Albert Servaes 1883-1966 Michel Seuphor 1901-1999 Victor Simonin 1877-1946 Frans Balthasar Solvyns 1760-1824 Michel-Joseph Speeckaert 1748-1838 Leon Spilliaert 1881-1946 Alfred Stevens 1823-1906 Joseph Stevens 1816-1892 Jan Stobbaerts 1838-1914 Ildephonse Stocquart 1819-1889 François Stroobant 1819-1916 Michael Sweerts 1618-1664 Jan Swerts 1820-1879 Charles Swyncop 1895-1970 Philippe Swyncop 1878-1949 Jean-Baptiste Tency Georges Teugels 1937-2007 Louis Thevenet 1874-1930 Daan Thulliez 1903-1965 Emile Thysebaert 1873-1963 Pierre Toebente 1919-1997 Léon Tombu 1866-1958 Jef Toune 1887-1940 Charles Tschaggeny 1815-1894 Edmond Tschaggeny 1818-1873 Luc Tuymans 1958 Edgard Tytgat 1879-1957 Leon Valckenaere 1853-1932 Jan Van Beers 1852-1927 Hilaire Vanbiervliet 1890-1981 Louis Pierre Van Biesbroeck 1839-1919 Willem Van Buscom 1797-1834 Jan Van Campenhout 1907-1972 Jef Van Campen 1934 Frans Van Damme 1858-1925 Frits Van den Berghe 1883-1939 Louis Van den Eynde 1881-1966 Serge Vandercam 1924-2005 Benoni Van der Gheynst 1876-1946 Edmond Van der Haeghen 1836-1919 Jan Van Der Smissen 1944-1995 Theo Van de Velde 1921-2005 Martine Van de Walle 1968 Gustave Van de Woestyne 1881-1947 Gabriel Van Dievoet 1875-1934 Emile Van Doren 1865-1949 (zie 19820116) Raymond Van Doren 1906-1991 Adolf Van Elstraete 1862-1939 Frans Van Giel 1892-1975 Louis Van Gorp 1932-2008 José Van Gucht 1913-1980 Willem Van Hecke 1893-1976 Gustaaf Van Heste 1887-1975 Edith Van Leckwyck 1899-1987 Louis Van Lint 1909-1986 Leo Van Paemel 1914-1995 George Van Raemdonck 1888-1966 Jozef Van Ruyssevelt 1941-1985 Théo van Rysselberghe 1862-1926 Achiel Van Sassenbrouck 1886-1979 Petrus van Schendel 1806-1870 Dan Van Severen 1927-2009 Eugeen Vansteenkiste 1896-1963 Georges Vantongerloo 1886-1965 Jef van Tuerenhout 1926-2006 Georges Van Zevenberghen 1877-1968 Gerard Vekeman 1933 Charles-Louis Verboeckhoven 1802-1889 Eugène Verboeckhoven 1798-1881 Marguerite Verboeckhoven 1865-1949 Jos Verdegem 1897-1957 Marcel-Henri Verdren 1933-1976 Paul Verdussen 1868-1945 Piet Verhaert 1852-1908 Séraphin Vermote 1788-1837 Barth Verschaeren 1888-1946 Karel-Willem Verschaeren 1881-1928 Theodoor Verschaeren 1874-1937 Alfred Verwee 1838-1895 Emma Verwee Louis-Charles Verwee 1836-1882 Louis-Pierre Verwee 1807-1877 Frans Vinck 1827-1903 Jozef-Xavier Vindevogel 1859-1941 Charles-Louis Voets 1876-? Henry Voordecker 1779-1861 Victor Wagemaekers 1876-1953 Maurice Wagemans 1877-1927 Gustave Walckiers 1831-1891 Taf Wallet 1902-2001 Antoine Wiertz 1806-1865 Edgard Wiethase 1881-1965 Wilchar 1910-2005 Georges Wilson 1850-1931 Roger Wittevrongel 1933 Rik Wouters 1882 - 1916 Juliëtte Wytsman 1866-1925 Joris-Frederik Ziesel 1755-1809
Charter of Athens (1933) - Charter van Athene (1933) - La Charte d'Athènes (1933)
IV International Congress for Modern Architecture
This document was produced as a result of the IV International Congress of Modern Architecture which took as its theme "the functional city" and focused on urbanism and the importance of planning in urban development schemes. The document includes urban ensembles in the definition of the built heritage and emphasizes the spiritual, cultural and economic value of the architectural heritage. It includes a recommendation calling for the destruction of urban slums and creation of "verdant areas" in their place, denying any potential heritage value of such areas. It condemns the use of pastiche for new construction in historic areas.
This is a retyped version of a translated document entitled The Athens Charter, 1933. J.Tyrwitt created the translation from French to English in 1943; the translation was thereafter published by Harvard University's Library of the Graduate School of design. It is included here for educational reference purposes only. The Getty suggests that when referencing this document, the original document should be consulted (see citation below).
The formatting, to the best of our abilities, have remained intact and any original typographical errors noted, but otherwise have been left unchanged.
Full Bibliographic Information:
Congress Internationaux d'Architecture moderne (CIAM), La Charte d'Athenes or The Athens Charter, 1933. Trans J.Tyrwhitt. Paris, France: The Library of the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 1946.
THE LIBRARY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF DESIGN
THE ATHENS CHARTER, 1933
Translated by J. Tyrwhitt
from La Charte d'Athenes Paris, 1943
I. THE CITY IN ITS REGIONAL SETTING points 1-8
II. THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF THE CITY
A. Dwelling 9-29
B. Recreation 30-40
C. Work 41-50
D. Transportation 51-64
E. Legacy of history 65-70
III. CONCLUSIONS 71-95
I. THE CITY IN ITS REGIONAL SETTING
1. The city is only a part of the economic, social and political entity which constitutes the region.
2. Economic, social and political values are juxtaposed with the psychological and physiological attributes of the human being, raising problems of the relations between the individual and the community. Life can only expand to the extent that accord is reached between these two opposing forces: the individual and the community.
3. Psychological and biological constants are influenced by the environment: its geographic and topographic situation as well as its economic and political situation. The geographic and topographic situation is of prime importance, and includes natural elements, land and water, flora, soil, climate, etc.
4. Next comes the economic situation, including the resources of the region and natural or manmade means of communication with the outside world.
5. Thirdly comes the political situation and the system of government and administration.
6. Special circumstances have, throughout history, determined the character of individual cities: military defense, scientific discoveries, different administrations, the progressive development of communications and methods of transportation (road, water, rail, air).
7. The factors which govern the development of cities are thus subject to continual change.
8. The advent of the machine age has caused immense disturbances to man's habits, place of dwelling and type of work; an uncontrolled concentration in cities, caused by mechanical transportation, has resulted in brutal and universal changes without precendent [sic] in history. Chaos has entered into the cities.
II. THE FOUR FUNCTIONS OF THE CITY
9. The population density is too great in the historic, central districts of cities as well as in some nineteenth century areas of expansion: densities rise to 1000 and even 1500 inhabitants per hectare (approximately 400 to 600 per acre).
10. In the congested urban areas housing conditions are unhealthy due to insufficient space within the dwelling, absence of useable green spaces and neglected maintenance of the buildings (exploitation based on speculation). This situation is aggravated by the presence of a population with a very low standard of living, incapable of initiating ameliorations (mortality up to 20 per cent).
11. Extensions of the city devour, bit by bit, its surrounding green areas; one can discern the successive rings of development. This ever greater separation from natural elements heightens the harmful effects of bad sanitary conditions.
12. Dwellings are scattered throughout the city without consideration of sanitary requirements.
13. The most densely populated districts are in the least favorable situations (on unfavorable slopes, invaded by fog or industrial emanations, subject to flooding, etc.)
14. Low indensity developments (middle income dwellings) occupy the advantageous sites, sheltered from unfavorable winds, with secure views opening onto an agreeable countryside, lake, sea, or mountains, etc. and with ample air and sunlight.
15. This segregation of dwellings is sanctioned by custom, and by a system of local authority regulations considered quite justifiable: zoning.
16. Buildings constructed alongside major routes and around crossroads are unsuitable for dwellings because of noise, dust and noxious gases.
17. The traditional alignment of houses along the sides of roads means that good exposure to sunlight is only possible for a minimum number of dwellings.
18. The distribution of community services related to housing is arbitrary.
19. Schools, in particular, are frequently sited on busy traffic routes and too far from the houses they serve.
20. Suburbs have developed without plans and without well organized links with the city.
21. Attempts have been made too late to incorporate suburbs within the administrative unit of the city.
22. Suburbs are often merely an agglomeration of hutments where it is difficult to collect funds for the necessary roads and services.
IT IS RECOMMENDED
23. Residential areas should occupy the best places in the city from the point of view of typography, climate, sunlight and availability of green space.
24. The selection of residential zones should be determined on grounds of health.
25. Reasonable densities should be imposed related both to the type of housing and to the conditions of the site.
26. A minimum number of hours of sunlight should be required for each dwelling unit.
27. The alignment of housing along main traffic routes should be forbidden [sic]
28. Full use should be made of modern building techniques in constructing highrise apartments.
29. Highrise apartments placed at wide distances apart liberate ground for large open spaces.
30. Open spaces are generally insufficient.
31. When there is sufficient open space it is often badly distributed and, therefore not readily usable by most of the population.
32. Outlying open spaces cannot ameliorate areas of downtown congestion.
33. The few sports fields, for reasons of accessibility, usually occupy sites earmarked for future development for housing or industry: which makes for a precarious existance [sic] and their frequent displacement.
34. Land that could be used for week-end leisure is often very difficult of access [sic].
IT IS RECOMMENDED
35. All residential areas should be provided with sufficient open space to meet reasonable needs for recreation and active sports for children, adolescents and adults.
36. Unsanitary slums should be demolished and replaced by open space. This would ameliorate the surrounding areas.
37. The new open spaces should be used for well-defined purposes: children's playgrounds, schools, youth clubs and other community buildings closely related to housing.
38. It should be possible to spend week-end free time in accessible and favorable places.
39. These should be laid out as public parks, forests, sports grounds, stadiums, beaches, etc.
40. Full advantages should be taken of existing natural features: rivers, forests, hills, mountains, valleys, lakes, sea, etc.
41. Places of work are no longer rationally distributed within the urban complex. This comprises industry, workshops, offices, government and commerce.
42. Connections between dwelling and place of work are no longer reasonable: they impose excessively long journeys to work.
43. The time spent in journeying to work has reached a critical situation.
44. In the absence of planning programs, the uncontrolled growth of cities, lack of foresight, land speculation, etc. have caused industry to settle haphazardly, following no rule.
45. Office buildings are concentrated in the downtown business district which, as the most privileged part of the city, served by the most complete system of communications, readily falls prey to speculation. Since offices are private concerns effective planning for their best development is difficult.
IT IS RECOMMENDED
46. Distances between work places and dwelling places should be reduced to a minimum.
47. Industrial sectors should be separated from residential sectors by an area of green open space.
48. Industrial zones should be contiguous with railroads, canals and highways.
49. Workshops, which are intimately related to urban life, and indeed derive from it, should occupy well designed [sic] areas in the interior of the city.
50. Business districts devoted to administration both public and private, should be assured of good communications with residential areas as well as with industries and workshops within the city and upon its fringes.
51. The existing network of urban communications has arisen from an agglomeration of the aids [sic] roads of major traffic routes. In Europe these major routes date back well into the middle ages [sic], sometimes even into antiquity.
52. Devised for the use of pedestrians and horse drawn vehicles, they are inadequate for today's mechanized transportation.
53. These inappropriate street dimensions prevent the effective use of mechanized vehicles at speeds corresponding to urban pressure.
54. Distances between crossroads are too infrequent.
55. Street widths are insufficient. Their widening is difficult and often ineffectual.
56. Faced by the needs of high speed [sic] vehicles, present the apparently irrational street pattern lacks efficiency and flexibility, differentiation and order [sic].
57. Relics of a former pompous magnificence designed for special monumental effects often complicate traffic circulation.
58. In many cases the railroad system presents a serious obstacle to well planned urban development. It barricades off certain residential districts, depriving them from easy contact with the most vital elements of the city.
IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT
59. Traffic analyses be made, based on accurate statistics, to show the general pattern of circulation in the city and its region, and reveal the location of heavily travelled [sic] routes and the types of their traffic.
60. Transportation routes should be classified according to their nature, and be designed to meet the rrquirements [sic] and speeds of specific types of vehicles.
61. Heavily used traffic junctions should be designed for continuous passage of vehicles, using different levels.
62. Pedestrian routes and automobile routes should follow separate paths.
63. Roads should be differentiated according to their functions: residential streets, promenades, through roads, major highways, etc.
64. In principle, heavy traffic routes should be insulated by green belts.
E. Legacy of History
IT IS RECOMMENDED THAT:
65. Fine architecture, whether individual buildings or groups of buildings, should be protected from demolition.
66. The grounds for the preservation of buildings should be that they express an earlier culture and that their retention is in the public interest.
67. But their preservation should no [sic] entail that people are obliged to live in unsalubrius [sic] conditions.
68. If their present location obstructs development, radical measures may be called for, such as altering major circulation routes or even shifting existing central districts - something usually considered impossible.
69. The demolition of slums surrounding historic monuments provides an opportunity to create new open spaces.
70. The re-use of past styles of building for new structures in historic areas under the pretext of assthetics [sic] has disastrous consequences. The continuance or the introduction of such habits in any form should not be tolerated.
71. Most of the cities studied present an image of chaos. They do not correspond in any way to their ultimate purpose: to satisfy the basic biological and physiological needs of their inhabitants.
72. The irresponsibility of private enterprise has resulted in a disastrous rupture of the equilibrium between strong economic forces on one side and, on the other, weak administrative controls and powerless social interests.
73. Although cities are constantly changing, their development proceeds without order or control and with no attempt to apply contemporary town planning principles, such as have been specified in professionally qualified circles.
74. The city should assure both individual liberty and the benefits of collective action on both the spiritual and material planes.
75. The dimensions of everything wi thin [sic] the urban domain should relate to the human scale.
76. The four keys to urban planning are the four functions of the city: dwelling, work, recreation (use of leisure time), transportation.
77. The city plan sould [sic] determine the internal structure and the interrelated positions in the city of each sector of the four key functions.
78. The plan should ensure that the daily cycle of activities between the dwelling, workplace and recreation (recuperation) can occur with the utmost economy of time. The dwelling should be considered as the prime center of all urban planning, to which all other functions are attached.
79. The speeds of mechanized transportation have disrupted the urban setting, presenting an ever-present danger, obstructing or paralyzing communications and endangering health.
80. The principle of urban and suburban circulation must be revised. A classification of acceptable speeds must be established. A reformed type of zoning must be set up that can bring the key functions of the city into a harmonious relationship and develop connections between them. These connections can then be developed into a rational network of major highways.
81. Town planning is a science based on three dimensions, not on two. This introduces the element of height which offers the possibility of freeing spaces for modern traffic circulation and for recreational purposes.
82. The city should be examined in the context of its region of influence. A plan for the total economic unit - the city-region - must replace the simple master plan of a city.
83. The city should be able to grow harmoniously as a functioning urban unity in all its different parts, by means of preordained open spaces and connecting links, but a state of equilibrium should exist at every stage of its development.
84. It is urgently necessary for every city to prepare a planning program indicating what laws will be needed to bring the plan to realization.
85. The planning program must be based on rigorous analytical studies carried out by specialists. It must foresee its stages of development in time andspace [sic]. It must coordinate the natural resources of the site, its topographic advantages, its economic assets, its social needs and its spiritual aspirations.
86. The architect engaged in town planning should determine everything in accordance with the human scale.
87. The point of departure for all town planning should be the single dwelling, or cell, and its grouping into neighborhood units of suitable size.
88. With these neighborhood units as the basis, the urban complex can be designed to bring out the relations between dwelling, places of work and places devoted to recreation.
89. The full resources of modern technology are needed to carry out this tremendous task. This means obtaining the cooperation of specialists to enrich the art of building by the incorporation of scientific innovations.
90. The progress of these developments will be greatly influenced by political, social and economic factors. . . [sic]
91. And not, in the last resort, by questions of architecture.
92. The magnitude of the urgent task of renovating the cities, and the excessive subdivision of urban land ownerships present two antagonistic realities.
93. This sharp contradiction poses one of the most serious problems of our time: the pressing need to regulate the disposition of land on an equitable and legal basis, so as to meet the vital needs of the community as well as those of the individual.
94. Private interests should be subordinated to the interests of the community.