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oxygen
twee meisjes onthoofd in Marokko: daders ter dood veroordeeld
Edited: 201907191366
3 Men Sentenced To Death For Beheading Two Female Hikers
Maren Ueland and Louisa Vesterager Jespersen were found dead at a campsite in Morocco's Atlas Mountains last year; footage of their murder later spread online.

BY SHARON LYNN PRUITT
Maren Ueland and Louisa Vesterager
Maren Ueland and Louisa Vesterager Photo: Facebook
Three men accused of beheading two female backpackers in Morocco last year have been sentenced to death for their crimes.

A Moroccan court convicted Jounes Ouzayed, Rashid Afatti, and Abdessaman Al Joud on terror charges on Wednesday, The Associated Press reports. The three men were accused of killing Maren Ueland, a 28-year-old Norwegian student, and Louisa Vesterager Jespersen, a 24-year-old Danish student, in December and filming it for social media.

A fourth defendant who allegedly fled the scene of the murder, Kahiali Abderahman, was sentenced to life in prison, while 19 other accomplices were sentenced to spending anywhere between five and 30 years in jail.

The two women, who reportedly attended the same university, traveled to Morocco for a month-long trip on Dec. 9 and were camping in the Atlas Mountains, a popular tourist destination, when they were killed. French hikers discovered their bodies on Dec. 17 near their campsite, according to the BBC.

Al Joud, 25, and Ouzayed, 27, are believed to have been the ones to behead the two students, Fox News reports. Afatti, 33, is alleged to have filmed the killings. All three are alleged to have pledged their support to ISIS in footage filmed before the murders. The footage was then shared online with other supporters of the Islamic State.

However, authorities have described Al Joud, Ouzayed, and Afatti as "lone wolves" who did not have contact with or help from ISIS leaders, according to Newsweek.

Al Joud, believed to be the leader of the group, admitted in court earlier this year to beheading one of the women, according to the New York Post. Ouziyad also admitted to murder, while Afatti confessed to being the cameraman, the outlet reports.

The three men's deaths would mark the first executions in Morocco since 1993, when a country-wide moratorium on capital punishment was enacted, according to the BBC.

Khalid El Fataoui, the lawyer representing Vesterager Jespersen’s family, said that he was “100% satisfied” with the conclusion of the case, Fox News reports. Vesterager Jespersen’s mother pushed for the death penalty in a letter read to the court earlier this year, Fataoui said, explaining, “We obtained what she asked for.”
gva & wiki
Mediahuis (Standaard, etc.) wil Ierse krantengroep Independent News & Media (INM) kopen voor 145.600.000 Euro
Edited: 201905020845
The company was formed as Independent Newspapers Limited in 1904 by William Martin Murphy, as the publisher of the Irish Independent.

In 1973 (Sir) Tony O'Reilly acquired 100% of the "A" shares of the company from the Murphy and Chance families, and was later forced to bid for the "B" (non-voting) shares. The company was subsequently floated on the Irish Stock Exchange and London Stock Exchange. The group expanded overseas, acquiring interests in the UK, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa.

In 1999, the company name was changed to Independent News and Media plc.

O'Reilly was CEO until early 2009, one of his sons, formerly COO, Gavin O'Reilly, became CEO in early 2009, and two others were non-executive directors for many years. O'Reilly himself resigned as CEO on 19 April 2012 and was replaced by Vincent Crowley. O'Reilly had come under pressure in recent months from two of INM's largest shareholders, billionaire Denis O'Brien and financier Dermot Desmond.

As of May 2012, Irish entrepreneur Denis O'Brien holds a 29.9% stake in the company,[8] making him the largest shareholder. This compares to O'Reilly's family stake of around 13% (June 2012).[9] 5% of the holding company is held by Clear Channel Communications, transferred in return for control of a South African outdoor advertising firm.

On 26 April 2013, INM announced it had concluded a deal with its bankers to exchange part of its debt for up to 20 per cent of equity. The deal was subject to the sale of its South African newspapers, a reduction in staff levels of 10%, a capital raising, and the restructuring of the company's pension plan.

In 2019, it was reported that INM was up for sale. According to reports, suitors include Schibsted, Sanoma Media and a private equity firm.

In April of 2019 it was reported that INM had accepted an ownership bid of €145.6 million from Belgian media group Mediahuis. The offer is subject to acceptance by shareholders, competition authority approval and government approval.

more info on the site of INM
paus Franciscus
de bescherming van minderjarigen in de kerk
Edited: 201902241063
RENCONTRE « LA PROTECTION DES MINEURS DANS L'ÉGLISE »
[VATICAN, 21-24 FÉVRIER 2019]

DISCOURS DU SAINT-PÈRE FRANÇOIS
AU TERME DE LA CONCÉLÉBRATION EUCHARISTIQUE

Salle Royale
Dimanche 24 février 2019

Chers frères et sœurs,

En rendant grâce au Seigneur qui nous a accompagnés ces jours-ci, je voudrais remercier chacun de vous pour l’esprit ecclésial et l’engagement concret que vous avez manifestés avec tant de générosité.

Notre travail nous a amenés à reconnaître, une fois de plus, que l’ampleur du fléau des abus sexuels sur mineurs est malheureusement un phénomène historiquement répandu dans toutes les cultures et toutes les sociétés. Il est devenu, seulement en des temps relativement récents, un objet d’études systématiques, grâce au changement de sensibilité de l’opinion publique sur un problème considéré comme tabou dans le passé, ce qui signifie que tous connaissaient sa présence mais que personne n’en parlait. Cela me rappelle également la pratique religieuse cruelle, répandue par le passé dans certaines cultures, qui consistait à offrir des êtres humains – spécialement des enfants - en sacrifice dans les rites païens. Cependant, encore aujourd’hui, les statistiques disponibles sur les abus sexuels sur mineurs, établies par diverses organisations et organismes nationaux et internationaux (OMS, Unicef, Interpol, Europol et d’autres), ne présentent pas la véritable ampleur du phénomène, souvent sous-estimé principalement parce que de nombreux cas d’abus sexuels sur mineurs ne sont pas dénoncés[1], en particulier ceux, très nombreux, qui sont commis dans le milieu familial.

Rarement, en effet, les victimes se confient et cherchent de l’aide[2]. Derrière cette réticence, il peut y avoir la honte, la confusion, la peur de vengeance, la culpabilité, la méfiance dans les institutions, les conditionnements culturels et sociaux, mais aussi la désinformation sur les services et les structures qui peuvent aider. L’angoisse, malheureusement, conduit à l’amertume, voire au suicide, ou parfois à la vengeance en faisant la même chose. La seule chose certaine est que des millions d’enfants dans le monde sont victimes d’exploitation et d’abus sexuels.

Il serait important ici de rapporter les chiffres globaux – à mon avis toujours partiels - au niveau mondial[3], puis européen, asiatique, américain, africain et au niveau de l’Océanie, pour donner un aperçu de l’ampleur et de la profondeur de ce fléau dans nos sociétés[4]. Je voudrais, pour éviter des discussions inutiles, souligner avant tout que la mention de certains pays a comme unique objectif de citer les données statistiques figurant dans les Rapports susmentionnés.

La première vérité qui émerge des données disponibles est que ceux qui commettent les abus, autrement dit les violences (physiques, sexuelles ou émotionnelles), sont surtout les parents, les proches, les maris d’épouses mineures, les entraineurs et les éducateurs. En outre, d’après des données de l’Unicef pour l’année 2017 concernant 28 pays dans le monde, sur 10 jeunes filles qui ont eu des rapports sexuels forcés, 9 révèlent avoir été victimes d’une personne connue ou proche de leur famille.

D’après les données officielles du gouvernement américain, plus de 700 000 enfants aux États-Unis sont victimes, chaque année, de violences et de mauvais traitements, d’après l’International Center For Missing and Exploited Children (ICMEC), un enfant sur 10 subit des abus sexuels. En Europe, 18 millions d’enfants sont victimes d’abus sexuels[5].

Si nous prenons l’exemple de l’Italie, le rapport du "Téléphone bleu" souligne, pour l’année 2016, que 68,9% des abus se passent au sein du propre foyer du mineur[6].

Le théâtre des violences n’est pas seulement le milieu familial, mais aussi celui du quartier, de l’école, du sport[7] et, malheureusement aussi ecclésial.

Des études effectuées ces dernières années sur le phénomène des abus sexuels sur mineurs, il ressort également que le développement du web et des moyens de communication a contribué à accroitre notablement les cas d’abus et de violences commis on line. La diffusion de la pornographie se propage rapidement dans le monde à travers les réseaux. Le fléau de la pornographie a pris des proportions terrifiantes, avec des effets délétères sur le psychisme et sur les relations entre homme et femme, ainsi qu’entre eux et les enfants. C’est un phénomène en continuelle expansion. Une partie très importante de la production pornographique a tristement pour objet les mineurs qui sont ainsi gravement blessés dans leur dignité. Les études dans ce domaine, c’est triste, décrivent que cela se produit selon des modes de plus en plus horribles et violents ; on en arrive à l’extrême des actes d’abus sur mineurs commandités et suivis en direct à travers les réseaux[8].

Je rappelle ici le Congrès international qui s’est tenu à Rome sur le thème de la dignité de l’enfant à l’ère numérique ; ainsi que le premier Forum de l’Alliance interreligieuse pour des Communautés plus sûres, qui a eu lieu, sur le même thème, en novembre dernier, à Abou Dhabi.

Un autre fléau est le tourisme sexuel : d’après les données de 2017 de l’Organisation Mondiale du Tourisme, chaque année dans le monde, trois millions de personnes voyagent pour avoir des rapports sexuels avec un mineur[9]. Le fait que les auteurs de tels crimes, dans la plupart des cas, ne reconnaissent pas que ce qu’ils commettent est un crime, est significatif.

Nous sommes, donc, devant un problème universel et transversal qui, malheureusement, existe presque partout. Nous devons être clairs : l’universalité de ce fléau, alors que se confirme son ampleur dans nos sociétés[10], n’atténue pas sa monstruosité à l’intérieur de l’Église.

L’inhumanité du phénomène au niveau mondial devient encore plus grave et plus scandaleuse dans l’Église, parce qu’en contradiction avec son autorité morale et sa crédibilité éthique. La personne consacrée, choisi par Dieu pour guider les âmes vers le salut, se laisse asservir par sa propre fragilité humaine, ou sa propre maladie, devenant ainsi un instrument de Satan. Dans les abus, nous voyons la main du mal qui n’épargne même pas l’innocence des enfants. Il n’y a pas d’explications satisfaisantes pour ces abus sur des enfants. Humblement et courageusement, nous devons reconnaître que nous sommes devant le mystère du mal, qui s’acharne contre les plus fragiles parce qu’ils sont images de Jésus. C’est pourquoi dans l’Église s’est accrue, ces temps-ci, la prise de conscience de devoir non seulement chercher à enrayer les abus très graves par des mesures disciplinaires et des procédures civiles et canoniques, mais aussi d’affronter résolument le phénomène à l’intérieur comme à l’extérieur de l’Église. Elle se sent appelée à combattre ce mal qui touche le centre de sa mission : annoncer l’Évangile aux petits et les protéger des loups avides.

Je voudrais ici réaffirmer clairement : si dans l’Église on détecte même un seul cas d’abus – qui représente déjà en soi une horreur-, un tel cas sera affronté avec la plus grande gravité. Frères et sœurs, dans la colère légitime des personnes, l’Église voit un reflet de la colère de Dieu, trahi et frappé par ces consacrés malhonnêtes. L’écho du cri silencieux des petits, qui au lieu de trouver en eux une paternité et des guides spirituels ont trouvé des bourreaux, fera trembler les cœurs anesthésiés par l’hypocrisie et le pouvoir. Nous avons le devoir d’écouter attentivement ce cri silencieux étouffé.

Il est donc difficile de comprendre le phénomène des abus sexuels sur les mineurs sans considérer le pouvoir, étant donné qu’ils sont toujours la conséquence de l’abus de pouvoir, l’exploitation d’une position d’infériorité de l’être abusé sans défense qui permet la manipulation de sa conscience et de sa fragilité psychologique et physique. L’abus de pouvoir est présent aussi dans les autres formes d’abus dont sont victimes presque quatre-vingt-cinq millions d’enfants oubliés de tous : les enfants-soldats, les mineurs prostitués, les enfants sous-alimentés, les enfants enlevés et souvent victimes du monstrueux commerce des organes humains, ou transformés en esclaves, les enfants victimes des guerres, les enfants réfugiés, les enfants avortés, et ainsi de suite.

Devant tant de cruauté, tant de sacrifices idolâtriques des enfants au dieu du pouvoir, de l’argent, de l’orgueil, de l’arrogance, les seules explications empiriques ne sont pas suffisantes ; elles ne sont pas capables de faire comprendre l’ampleur et la profondeur de ce drame : Encore une fois l’herméneutique positiviste montre sa limite. Elle nous donne une véritable explication qui nous aidera à prendre les mesures nécessaires, mais elle n’est pas capable de nous donner une signification. Et nous, aujourd’hui, nous avons besoin d’explications et de significations. Les explications nous aideront beaucoup dans le champ opérationnel, mais elles nous laisseront à mi-chemin.

Quelle serait donc la “signification” existentielle de ce phénomène criminel? Tenant compte de son étendue et de sa profondeur humaine, il n’est aujourd’hui que la manifestation actuelle de l’esprit du mal. Sans avoir présente cette dimension nous resterons loin de la vérité et sans véritables solutions.

Frères et sœurs, nous sommes aujourd’hui face à une manifestation du mal, flagrante, agressive et destructrice. Derrière et à l’intérieur de tout cela, il y a l’esprit du mal qui, dans son orgueil et son arrogance, se sent le maître du monde[11] et pense avoir vaincu. Et cela, je voudrais vous le dire avec l’autorité d’un frère et d’un père, certes petit et pécheur, mais qui est pasteur de l’Eglise qui préside à la charité : dans ces cas douloureux, je vois la main du mal qui n’épargne même pas l’innocence des petits. Et cela me conduit à penser à l’exemple d’Hérode qui, poussé par la peur de perdre son pouvoir, ordonna de massacrer tous les enfants de Bethléem[12]. Derrière cela se trouve Satan.

Et de même que nous devons prendre toutes les mesures pratiques que le bon sens, les sciences et la société nous offrent, de même nous ne devons pas perdre de vue cette réalité et prendre les mesures spirituelles que le Seigneur lui-même nous enseigne : humiliation, accusation de nous-mêmes, prière, pénitence. C’est le seul moyen de vaincre l’esprit du mal. C’est ainsi que Jésus l’a vaincu[13].

L’objectif de l’Eglise sera donc celui d’écouter, de défendre, de protéger et de soigner les mineurs abusés, exploités et oubliés, où qu’ils se trouvent. L’Eglise, pour atteindre cet objectif, doit se mettre au-dessus de toutes les polémiques idéologiques et des politiques journalistiques qui instrumentalisent souvent, pour des intérêts divers, même les drames vécus par les petits.

L’heure est venue, par conséquent, de collaborer ensemble pour éradiquer cette brutalité du corps de notre humanité, en adoptant toutes les mesures nécessaires déjà en vigueur au niveau international et au niveau ecclésiastique. L’heure est venue de trouver le juste équilibre de toutes les valeurs en jeu et de donner des directives uniformes pour l’Eglise, en évitant les deux extrêmes d’un justicialisme, provoqué par le sens de la faute en raison des erreurs du passé et de la pression du monde médiatique, et d’une autodéfense qui n’affronte pas les causes et les conséquences de ces graves délits.

Dans ce contexte, je souhaite mentionner les “Best Practices” formulées, sous l’égide de l’Organisation Mondiale de la Santé[14], par un groupe de dix agences internationales qui a développé et approuvé un ensemble de mesures appelé INSPIRE, c’est-à-dire sept stratégies pour mettre fin à la violence contre les enfants[15].

Se prévalant de ces lignes-guide, l’Eglise, dans son itinéraire législatif, grâce aussi au travail accompli, ces dernières années, par la Commission Pontificale pour la Protection des Mineurs, et grâce à la contribution de notre présente rencontre, on se concentrera sur les dimensions suivantes :

1. La protection des enfants : l’objectif premier de toute mesure est celui de protéger les petits et d’empêcher qu’ils soient victimes de tout abus psychologique et physique. Il convient donc de changer les mentalités pour combattre l’attitude défensive et réactive visant à sauvegarder l’Institution, au bénéfice d’une recherche sincère et décidée du bien de la communauté, en donnant la priorité aux victimes des abus dans tous les sens du terme. Doivent toujours être présents sous nos yeux les visages innocents des petits, rappelant la parole du Maître : « Celui qui est un scandale, une occasion de chute, pour un seul de ces petits qui croient en moi, il est préférable pour lui qu’on lui accroche au cou une de ces meules que tournent les ânes, et qu’il soit englouti en pleine mer. Malheureux le monde à cause des scandales! Il est inévitable qu’arrivent les scandales ; cependant, malheureux celui par qui le scandale arrive! » (Mt 18, 6-7).

2. Un sérieux irréprochable : je voudrais redire ici que l’« l’Eglise ne se ménagera pas pour faire tout ce qui est nécessaire afin de livrer à la justice quiconque aura commis de tels délits. L’Eglise ne cherchera jamais à étouffer ou à sous-estimer aucun cas. » (Discours à la Curie romaine, 21 décembre 2018). En raison de sa conviction, « les péchés et les crimes des personnes consacrées se colorent de teintes encore plus sombres d’infidélité, de honte, et ils déforment le visage de l’Eglise en minant sa crédibilité. En effet, l’Eglise, ainsi que ses enfants fidèles, est aussi victime de ces infidélités et de ces véritables “délits de détournement” » (ibid.).

3. Une véritable purification : malgré les mesures prises et les progrès faits en matière de prévention des abus, il convient d’imposer un perpétuel et renouvelé engagement à la sainteté des pasteurs dont la configuration au Christ Bon Pasteur est un droit du peuple de Dieu. On rappelle donc « la ferme volonté de persévérer, de toutes ses forces, sur la route de la purification. L’Eglise s’interrogera sur comment protéger les enfants, comment éviter de telles catastrophes, comment soigner et réintégrer les victimes, comment renforcer la formation dans les séminaires […]. On cherchera à transformer les erreurs commises en opportunité pour éliminer ce fléau non seulement du corps de l’Eglise mais aussi de la société » (ibid.). La sainte crainte de Dieu nous porte à nous accuser nous-mêmes – comme personne et comme institution – et à réparer nos manquements. S’accuser soi-même : c’est un début de sagesse lié à la sainte crainte de Dieu. Apprendre à s’accuser soi-même, comme personne, comme institution, comme société. En réalité, nous ne devons pas tomber dans le piège d’accuser les autres, ce qui est un pas vers le prétexte qui nous sépare de la réalité.

4. La formation : autrement dit, les exigences de la sélection et de la formation des candidats au sacerdoce avec des critères non seulement négatifs, visant principalement à exclure les personnalités problématiques, mais aussi positifs en offrant un chemin de formation équilibré pour les candidats idoines, tendu vers la sainteté y compris la vertu de chasteté. Saint Paul VI, dans l’Encyclique Sacerdotalis caelibatus écrit : « Une vie qui, comme celle du prêtre gardant le célibat, comporte un si total et si intime engagement dans toute sa structure intérieure et extérieure, exclut en effet les sujets insuffisamment équilibrés du point de vue psychophysiologique et moral ; et l’on ne peut prétendre que, en ce domaine, la grâce supplée la nature » (n. 64).

5. Renforcer et vérifier les lignes-guides des Conférences Episcopales : c’est-à-dire réaffirmer l’exigence de l’unité des évêques dans l’application des mesures qui ont valeur de normes et non pas uniquement d’orientations. Des normes, pas uniquement des orientations. Aucun abus ne doit jamais être couvert (comme ce fut le cas par le passé) et sous-évalué, étant donné que la couverture des abus favorise l’expansion du mal et ajoute un nouveau scandale. En particulier, développer une nouvelle approche efficace pour la prévention dans toutes les institutions et les milieux des activités ecclésiales.

6. Accompagner les personnes victimes d’abus : Le mal qu’elles ont vécu laisse en elles des blessures indélébiles qui se manifestent également par des rancœurs et des tendances à l’autodestruction. L’Église a donc le devoir de leur offrir tout le soutien nécessaire en recourant à des experts dans ce domaine. Écouter, je me permets cette expression : ‘‘perdre du temps’’ dans l’écoute. L’écoute guérit le blessé et nous guérit aussi nous-mêmes de l’égoïsme, de la distance, du ‘‘cela ne me regarde pas’’, de l’attitude du prêtre et du lévite dans la parabole du bon samaritain.

7. Le monde digital : la protection des mineurs doit tenir compte des nouvelles formes d’abus sexuel et d’abus de tout genre qui les menacent dans les milieux où ils vivent et à travers les nouveaux instruments qu’ils utilisent. Les séminaristes, les prêtres, les religieux, les religieuses, les agents pastoraux et tous doivent être conscients que le monde digital et l’utilisation de ses instruments ont souvent plus d’impact qu’on ne le pense. Il faut ici encourager les pays et les Autorités à appliquer toutes les mesures nécessaires pour limiter les sites web qui menacent la dignité de l’homme, de la femme et en particulier des mineurs. Frères et sœurs, le crime ne jouit pas du droit de liberté. Il faut absolument nous opposer avec la plus ferme détermination à ces abominations, veiller et lutter afin que le développement des petits ne soit pas troublé ou brouillé par leur accès incontrôlé à la pornographie qui laissera des traces négatives profondes dans leur esprit et dans leur âme. Nous devons nous engager afin que les jeunes gens et les jeunes filles, en particulier les séminaristes et le clergé, ne deviennent pas des esclaves de dépendances fondées sur l’exploitation et l’abus criminel des innocents et de leurs images et sur le mépris de la dignité de la femme ainsi que de la personne humaine. Sont mises en évidence les nouvelles normes sur les ‘‘délits les plus graves’’ approuvées par le Pape Benoît XVI en 2010, auxquels était ajouté comme nouveau cas d’espèce de délit « l’acquisition, la détention ou la divulgation » par un clerc « d’images pornographiques de mineurs […], de quelque manière que ce soit et quel que soit l’instrument employé ». On parlait alors de « mineurs [de moins] de quatorze ans » ; à présent nous estimons nécessaire de hausser cette limite d’âge pour étendre la protection des mineurs et insister sur la gravité de ces faits.

8. Le tourisme sexuel : le comportement, le regard, l’esprit des disciples et des serviteurs de Jésus doivent savoir reconnaître l’image de Dieu dans chaque créature humaine, en commençant par les plus innocentes. C’est seulement en puisant dans ce respect radical de la dignité de l’autre que nous pourrons le défendre de la puissance déferlante de la violence, de l’exploitation, de l’abus et de la corruption, et le servir de manière crédible dans sa croissance intégrale, humaine et spirituelle, dans la rencontre avec les autres et avec Dieu. Afin de combattre le tourisme sexuel, il faut la répression judiciaire, mais aussi le soutien et des projets de réinsertion des victimes de ce phénomène criminel. Les communautés ecclésiales sont appelées à renforcer l’accompagnement pastoral des personnes exploitées par le tourisme sexuel. Parmi celles-ci, les plus vulnérables et ayant besoin d’une aide particulière sont sûrement les femmes, les mineurs et les enfants : ces derniers, toutefois, ont besoin d’une protection et d’une attention spéciales. Que les autorités gouvernementales leur accordent la priorité et agissent de toute urgence pour combattre le trafic et l’exploitation économique des enfants. À cet effet, il est important de coordonner les efforts à tous les niveaux de la société et aussi de collaborer étroitement avec les organisations internationales en vue d’élaborer un cadre juridique qui protège les mineurs contre l’exploitation sexuelle dans le tourisme et qui permette de poursuivre légalement les délinquants[16].

Permettez-moi maintenant d’adresser ma vive gratitude à tous les prêtres et à toute les personnes consacrées qui servent le Seigneur fidèlement et totalement et qui se sentent déshonorés et discrédités par les comportements honteux de quelques de leurs confrères. Nous portons tous – Eglise, personnes consacrées, peuple de Dieu, voire Dieu lui-même – les conséquences de leur infidélité. Je remercie, au nom de toute l’Église, la très grande majorité des prêtres qui non seulement sont fidèles à leur célibat mais se dépensent dans un ministère rendu aujourd’hui encore plus difficile par les scandales provoqués par un petit nombre (mais toujours trop nombreux) de leurs confrères. Et merci également aux fidèles qui connaissent bien leurs bons pasteurs et continuent de prier pour eux et de les soutenir.

Enfin, je voudrais souligner l’importance de la nécessité de transformer ce mal en une opportunité de purification. Regardons la figure d’Edith Stein – Sainte Thérèse Bénédicte de la Croix, - certaine que « dans la nuit la plus obscure surgissent les plus grands prophètes et les plus grands saints. Mais le courant vivifiant de la vie mystique demeure invisible. Il est certain que les événements décisifs de l’histoire du monde ont été essentiellement influencés par des âmes dont rien n’est dit dans les livres d’histoire. Et quelles sont les âmes que nous devrons remercier pour les événements décisifs de notre vie personnelle, c’est une chose que nous saurons seulement le jour où tout ce qui est caché sera manifesté ». Le saint peuple fidèle de Dieu, dans son silence quotidien, sous de nombreuses formes et de bien des manières continue de rendre visible et atteste, avec une espérance ‘‘obstinée’’, que le Seigneur n’abandonne pas, qu’il soutient le dévouement constant et, en de nombreuses situations, souffrant de ses fils. Le saint et patient peuple fidèle de Dieu, soutenu et vivifié par l’Esprit Saint, est le meilleur visage de l’Église prophétique qui sait mettre au centre son Seigneur en se donnant chaque jour. Ce sera précisément ce saint peuple de Dieu qui nous libérera du fléau du cléricalisme, terrain fertile de toutes ces abominations.

Le meilleur résultat et la plus efficace résolution que nous puissions offrir aux victimes, au peuple de la Sainte Mère Église et au monde entier, c’est l’engagement à une conversion personnelle et collective, l’humilité d’apprendre, d’écouter, d’assister et de protéger les plus vulnérables.

Je lance un appel pressant pour la lutte, à tous les niveaux, contre les abus sur mineurs - dans le domaine sexuel comme dans d’autres domaines - de la part de toutes les autorités comme des personnes individuelles, car il s’agit de crimes abominables qui doivent disparaître de la face de la terre. Beaucoup de victimes cachées dans les familles et dans divers milieux de nos sociétés, le demandent.



[1] Cf. Maria Isabel Martinez Perez, Abusos sexuales en niños y adolescentes, Ed. Criminología y Justicia, 2012 : sont dénoncés seulement 2% des cas, surtout quand les abus se produisent dans le milieu familial. On estime de 15% à 20% des victimes de pédophilies dans notre société. Seulement 50% des enfants révèlent l’abus qu’ils ont subi et, dans ces cas, seul 15% sont effectivement dénoncés. Et seulement 5% sont finalement jugés.

[2]1 cas sur 3 n’en parle avec personne (Données 2017 recueillies par l’organisation no-profit THORN).

[3] Niveau mondial : en 2017, l’Oms a estimé que jusqu’à un milliard de mineurs âgés de 2 à 17 ans a subi des violences ou des négligences physiques, émotionnelles ou sexuelles. Les abus sexuels (des attouchements au viol), d’après certaines estimations de l’Unicef de 2014, concerneraient plus de 120 millions de fillettes, parmi lesquels on constate le plus grand nombre de victimes. En 2017, la même organisation Onu a indiqué que dans 38 pays du monde, à faible et moyen revenu, presque 17 millions de femmes adultes ont reconnu avoir eu un rapport sexuel forcé pendant l’enfance.

Europe : en 2013, l’Oms a estimé que plus de 18 millions de personnes ont été victimes d’un abus. D’après l’Unicef, dans 28 pays européens, environ 2,5 millions de jeunes femmes ont déclaré avoir subi des abus sexuels avec ou sans contact physique avant leur 15 ans (données diffusées en 2017). En outre, 44 millions (correspondant à 22,9%) ont été victimes de violence physique, et 55 millions (29,6%) de violence psychologique. Et pas seulement : en 2017, le Rapport Interpol sur l’exploitation sexuelle des mineurs a conduit à identifier 14 289 victimes dans 54 pays européens. En ce qui concerne l’Italie en 2017, le Cesvi a estimé que 6 millions d’enfants ont subi des mauvais traitements. En outre, d’après les données établies par le "Téléphone bleu", dans la période du 1er janvier au 31 décembre 2017, les cas d’abus sexuels et de pédophilie gérés par le Service 114 Urgence Enfance ont été de 98, ce qui correspond à 7,5% de la totalité des cas gérés par le Service. 65% des mineurs demandant de l’aide étaient constitués par des victimes de sexe féminin et en outre 40% avaient un âge inférieur à 11 ans.

Asie : En Inde dans la décennie 2001-2011, l’"Asian Center for Human Rights"a constaté un total de 48 338 cas de viols de mineurs, avec une augmentation égale à 336% : de 2113 cas en 2001, en effet, on est arrivé à 7112 cas en 2011.

Amérique : aux Etats Unis les données officielles du gouvernement observent que plus de 700 000 enfants, chaque année, sont victimes de violence et de mauvais traitements. D’après l’International Center for Missing and Exploited Children (Icmec), un enfant sur 10 subit des abus sexuels.

Afrique : en Afrique du Sud, les données d’une recherche menée par le Centre pour la justice et la prévention des crimes de l’Université de la Ville du Cap, a montré, en 2016, qu’un jeune sud-africain sur trois, masculin ou féminin, est menacé d’abus sexuels avant d’avoir atteint ses 17 ans. D’après l’étude, la première du genre à l’échelle nationale en Afrique du Sud, 784 967 jeunes âgés entre 15 et 17 ans ont déjà subi des abus sexuels. Les victimes dans ce cas sont principalement des jeunes garçons. Pas même un tiers a dénoncé les violences aux Autorités. Dans d’autres pays africains, les abus sexuels sur les mineurs s’insèrent dans le contexte plus large des violences liées aux conflits qui ensanglantent le continent et sont difficilement quantifiables. Le phénomène est aussi étroitement lié à la pratique des mariages précoces répandus dans différentes nations africaines et pas seulement.

Océanie: en Australie, d’après les données diffusées par l’Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (Aihw), en février 2018, concernant les années 2015-2017, une femme sur 6 (16%, autrement dit 1,5 millions) a signalé avoir subi des abus physiques et/ou sexuels avant leurs 15 ans, et un homme sur 9 (11%, c’est-à-dire 992 000) a indiqué avoir fait l’expérience de cet abus quand il était jeune. En 2015-2016, en outre, environ 450 000 enfants ont été l’objet de mesures de protection de l’enfance, et 55 600 mineurs ont été éloignés de leur foyer pour soigner les abus subis et éviter d’autres. Enfin, ne pas oublier les risques encourus par les mineurs indigènes : toujours d’après l’Aihw, En 2015-2016, les enfants indigènes ont eu 7 fois plus de probabilité d’être l’objet d’abus ou d’abandon par rapport à leurs camarades non indigènes (cf. http://www.pbc2019.org/it/protezione-dei-minori/abuso-dei-minori-a-livello-globale).

[4]Les données rapportées se réfèrent à un échantillonnage de pays choisis sur la fiabilité des sources disponibles. Les recherches diffusées par l’Unicef sur 30 pays confirment ce fait : un petit pourcentage de victimes a affirmé avoir demandé de l’aide.

[5]Cf. https://www.repubblica.it/salute/prevenzione/2016/05/12/news/maltrattamenti-sui_minori_tutti_gli_abusi - 139630223.

[6]Plus particulièrement, le présumé responsable de la souffrance subie par un mineur est, dans 73,7% des cas un parent (la mère dans 44,2% des cas et le père dans 29,5%), un membre de la famille dans 3,3% des cas, un ami dans 3,2%, une connaissance dans 3%, un enseignant dans 2,5% des cas. Les données mettent en lumière le fait que le responsable est une personne extérieure adulte dans un petit pourcentage de cas (2,2%) (cf. Ibid.).

[7] Une étude anglaise de 2011, réalisée par le Nspcc (National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children), a indiqué que 29% des sujets interrogés rapportaient avoir subi des harcèlements sexuels (physiques et verbaux) dans les centres où ils pratiquaient un sport.

[8]D’après les données 2017 de l’IWF (Internet Watch Foundation), toutes les 7 minutes une page web envoie des images d’enfants sexuellement abusés. En 2017, ont été identifiés 78 589 URL contenant des images d’abus sexuels, concentrés en particulier dans les Pays-Bas, suivis par les États-Unis, le Canada, la France et la Russie. 55% des victimes ont moins de 10 ans, 86% sont des filles, 7% des garçons, 5% les deux.

[9] Les destinations les plus fréquentes sont le Brésil, la république Dominicaine, la Colombie, outre la Thaïlande et le Cambodge. A celle-ci se sont ajoutées certains pays d’Afrique et de l’Europe de l’Est. Les six premiers pays de provenance de ceux qui commettent les abus, en revanche, sont la France, l’Allemagne, le Royaume Uni, la Chine, le Japon et l’Italie. A ne pas négliger non plus le nombre croissant des femmes qui voyagent dans les pays en voie de développement à la recherche de sexe moyennant paiement avec des mineurs : au total elles représentent 10% des touristes sexuels dans le monde. De plus selon une étude conduite par Ecpat Iternational (End Child Prostitution in Asian Tourism) entre 2015 et 2016, 35% des touristes sexuels pédophiles étaient des clients habituels, et que 65% des clients occasionnels (cf. https://www.osservatoriodiritti.il/2018/03/27/turismo-sessuale-minorile-nel-mondo-italia-ecpat).

[10] « Si cette très grave calamité est parvenue à toucher certains ministres consacrés, on se demande dans quelle mesure elle est profonde dans nos sociétés et dans nos familles ? » (Discours à la Curie romaine, 21 décembre 2018).

[11] Cf. R.H. Benson, The Lord of the World, Dodd, Mead and Company, London 1907.

[12] « Quare times, Herodes, qui audis Regem natum ? Non venit ille ut te excludat, sed ut diabolum vincat. Sed tu haec non intelligens turbaris et saevis ; et ut perdas unum quem quaeris, per tot infantium mortes efficeris crudelis […] Necas parvulos corpore quia te necat timor in corde » (S. Quadvultdeus, Sermo 2 de Symbolo : PL 40, 655).

[13] « Quemadmodum enim ille, effuso in scientiae lignum veneno suo, naturam gusto corruperat, sic et ipse dominicam carnem vorandam presumens, Deitatis in ea virtute, corruptus interitusque sublatus est » (Maximus Confessor, Centuria 1, 8-13 : PG, 1182-1186).

[14](CDC : United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention ; CRC : Convention on the Rights of the Child ; End Violence Against Children : The Global Partnership ; PAHO : Pan American Health Organization ; PEPFAR : President’s Emergency Program for AIDS Relief ; TfG : Together for Girls; Unicef: United Nations Children’s Fund; UNODC: United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime; USAID: United States Agency for International Development; WHO: World Health Organization).

[15] Chaque lettre du mot INSPIRE représente une des stratégies, et la plupart a démontré avoir des effets préventifs contre divers types de violence, en plus d’effets bénéfiques dans des domaines comme la santé mentale, l’éducation et la réduction de la criminalité. Les sept stratégies sont les suivantes : Implementation and enforcement of laws : mise en œuvre et application des lois (par exemple, interdire les disciplines violentes et limiter l’accès à l’alcool et aux armes à feu) ; Norms and values : normes et valeurs à changer (par exemple, celles qui pardonnent l’abus sexuel sur les filles ou le comportements agressifs entre garçons) ; Safe environments : milieux sûrs (par exemple identifier dans les quartiers les “points chauds” de violence et affronter les causes locales à travers une politique qui résolve les problèmes et autres interventions) ; Parent and caregiver support : parents et soutiens de l’assistant familial (par exemple en fournissant une formation aux parents pour les jeunes, aux nouveaux parents) ; Income and economic strengthening : revenu et renforcement économique (comme le micro crédit et la formation à l’égalité des sexes) ; Response and support services : services de réponse et de soutien (par exemple, garantir que les enfants exposés à la violence puissent accéder à des soins d’urgence efficaces et recevoir un soutien psycho-social adapté) ; Education and life skills : instruction et habilitation à la vie (par exemple, garantir que les enfants fréquentent l’école et fournir les compétence sociales).

[16] Cf. Document final du VIème Congrès mondial sur la pastorale du tourisme, 27 juillet 2004.
Erik Kennes
Excuses aan Congo - een opinie
Edited: 201902200961
UN
Statement to the media by the United Nations Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent, on the conclusion of its official visit to Belgium, 4-11 February 2019
Edited: 201902111471

Brussels, 11 February 2019

The Working Group of Experts on People of African Descent thanks the Government of Belgium for its invitation to visit the country from 4 to 11 February 2019, and for its cooperation. In particular, we thank the Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. We also thank the OHCHR Regional Office for Europe for their support to the visit.
The views expressed in this statement are of a preliminary nature and our final findings and recommendations will be presented in our mission report to the United Nations Human Rights Council in September 2019.
During the visit, the Working Group assessed the human rights situation of people of African descent living in Belgium, and gathered information on the forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, Afrophobia and related intolerance they face. The Working Group studied the official measures taken and mechanisms to prevent systemic racial discrimination and to protect victims of racism, as well as responses to multiple forms of discrimination.
As part of its fact-finding mission, the Working Group visited Brussels, Antwerp, Liege, Namur and Charleroi. It met with senior officials of the Belgian Government at the federal, regional, community and local levels, the legislature, law enforcement, national human rights institutions, OHCHR Regional Office, non-governmental organizations, as well as communities and individuals working to promote the rights of people of African descent in Belgium. The Working Group toured the Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA). It also visited the St. Gilles prison in Brussels.
We thank the many people of African descent and others, representing civil society organizations, human rights defenders, women’s organizations, lawyers, and academics whom we met during the visit. The contributions of those working to promote and protect the rights of people of African descent, creating initiatives, and proposing strategies to address structural racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, Afrophobia and related intolerance are invaluable.
The protection of human rights and the prohibition of racial discrimination is enshrined in Articles 10-11 in the Belgian Constitution. Belgium’s national anti-racism legislation is the 1981 anti-discrimination law, updated in 2007. Regions and communities also have anti-discrimination legislation.
We welcome the initiatives undertaken by Government at the federal, regional and community levels to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. We encourage efforts to raise awareness and support civil society including through the provision of funding.
The Working Group recognizes the important work of the Inter-Federal Centre for Equal Opportunities (Unia) in the protection and promotion of human rights, and in documenting racism and inequality at the federal and regional levels. Unia also provides recommendations on participation, tolerance, discrimination and diversity as well as their implementation in Belgium. Its diversity barometers provide important information on the human rights situation of people of African descent.
Throughout our visit we appreciated the willingness of public officials to discuss how public and private institutions may sustain racial disparities. We welcome the national network of expertise on crime against people, a robust infrastructure for combatting hate crime. In Brussels, Antwerp, Liege, Namur and Charleroi, the Working Group received information about social integration and intercultural efforts for new arrivals, including referral to language tuition. In Liege, we welcome the commitment enshrined in the Charter, Liege Against Racism.
The Working Group also welcomes the civil society initiatives to promote the International Decade for people of African descent in Belgium.
One of the ways the African diaspora in Belgium is expressing its voice is through cultural events such as the Congolisation festival to highlight the contribution of Congolese artists to the Belgian cultural landscape and make people begin to appreciate and reflect on the diaspora’s artistic heritage.
Despite the positive measures referred to above, the Working Group is concerned about the human rights situation of people of African descent in Belgium who experience racism and racial discrimination.
There is clear evidence that racial discrimination is endemic in institutions in Belgium. Civil society reported common manifestations of racial discrimination, xenophobia, Afrophobia and related intolerance faced by people of African descent. The root causes of present day human rights violations lie in the lack of recognition of the true scope of violence and injustice of colonisation. As a result, public discourse does not reflect a nuanced understanding of how institutions may drive systemic exclusion from education, employment, and opportunity. The Working Group concludes that inequalities are deeply entrenched because of structural barriers that intersect and reinforce each other. Credible efforts to counter racism require first overcoming these hurdles.
We note with concern the public monuments and memorials that are dedicated to King Leopold II and Force Publique officers, given their complicity in atrocities in Africa. The Working Group is of the view that closing the dark chapter in history, and reconciliation and healing, requires that Belgians should finally confront, and acknowledge, King Leopold II’s and Belgium’s role in colonization and its long-term impact on Belgium and Africa.
The most visible postcolonial discourse in a Belgian public institution takes place within the recently reopened Royal Museum for Central Africa (RMCA), which is both a research and a cultural institution. RMCA has sought to review its approach to include critical, postcolonial analysis- a marked shift for an institution originally charged with promulgating colonial propaganda. The Working Group is of the view that the reorganization of the museum has not gone far enough. For those communities that do engage in vibrant postcolonial discourse, i.e., civil society and activists, the reorganization falls short of its goal of providing adequate context and critical analysis. The Working Group notes the importance of removing all colonial propaganda and accurately presenting the atrocities of Belgium’s colonial past. The RMCA admits that decolonization is a process and reports its intention to evolve towards sharing power with people and institutions of African descent.
The Working Group welcomes this process of decolonization, as even recent cultural production in Belgium reflects enduring legacies of the colonial past. For example, a 2002 exhibit of eight Africans in a private zoo in Belgium (Cameroonians brought to Belgium without visas) recalls Belgium’s notorious “human zoos” between 1897 and 1958.
Reportedly, between 1959 and 1962, thousands of children born to white fathers and African mothers in Belgian-ruled Congo, Rwanda and Burundi were abducted and sent to Belgium for adoption. The Working Group notes with approval that the 2016 appeal by Metis de Belgique for state recognition was met with an apology from the Catholic Church the following year and a 2018 parliamentary resolution on la ségrégation subie par les métis issus de la colonisation belge en Afrique. The Working Group commends the provision of funding for data gathering, research and accountability within this framework.
Belgium often refers to intercultural, rather than multicultural, goals with the idea of preserving individual cultural heritage and practices while coexisting in peace and prosperity with respect and regard for the intersection and interaction of diverse cultures. This diversity includes citizens, migrants, people of first, second, and third generation residency, highly educated people, and groups that have contributed enormously to the modern Belgian state. Interculturality requires reciprocity, rejection of harmful cultural stereotype, and valuing of all cultures, including those of people of African descent.
The Working Group notes with concern the absence of disaggregated data based on ethnicity or race. Disaggregated data is required for ensuring the recognition of people of African descent and overcoming historical “social invisibility”. Without such data, it is impossible to ensure that Belgium’s reported commitments to equality are actually realized. Some anti-discrimination bodies have found proxy data (relating to parental origin) that have informed equality and anti-racism analyses; additional data relating to regroupement famille (and other data) may also extend these analyses to Belgian citizens of African descent.
Belgium has a complex political system. This must not impede fulfilment of its obligations to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance. The lack of an A-Status National Human Rights Institution and a National Action Plan to combat racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, Afrophobia and related intolerance must be addressed. Belgium should engage actively in partnership with people of African descent, particularly experts in navigating these complexities, to promote equality and to diminish entrenched racial disparity.
The Working Group notes both civil society and law enforcement acknowledge the prevalence of racial profiling in policing. Reportedly, counter-terrorism policies have contributed to an increase in racial profiling by law enforcement. The federal police recognized the concern with racial profiling and offered additional information about a pilot study in Mechelen to document all stops and searches (including a narrative basis for the stop) over a two-year period. However, it is unclear how this may effectively target racial profiling as the race of the community members stopped by the police are not included among the data captured by the stop report.
The Working Group visited St. Gilles Prison in Brussels. The Working Group found the prison dilapidated and overcrowded. It is scheduled for relocation in 2022. Frequent strikes by prison personnel dramatically impact the conditions of confinement for incarcerated people housed there, including suspensions of visitation, showers, phone access, recreation, and prolonged lockdowns. Another concern raised by the detainees was the lack of attention to their requests for medical attention. There were also individual reports of racist behaviour by some of the guards, and the administration committed to individually counselling perpetrators and zero-tolerance for racism.
The Working Group notes with deep concern, the lack of representation of people of African descent in the judiciary, law enforcement, government service, correctional service, municipal councils, regional and federal parliaments. These institutions do not reflect the diversity of the Belgian population. When the Working Group visited Belgium in 2005, the federal police reported the existence of a robust recruitment program to promote diversity. While this program was again presented as a serious commitment, no data are currently available to establish what improvements, if any, had been made in the past fourteen years and whether the program has been successful.
Civil society and community members commented on the lack of positive role models in the news media, on billboards, and in Belgian television and film. The French Community referenced best practices involving a barometer of print media aimed at measuring equality and diversity among journalists and in news content, and creating of an expert panel to broaden representation.
The Working Group noted deficiencies in the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights, among people of African descent in Belgium. According to research, sixty percent of Afro-Belgians are educated to degree level, but they are four times more likely to be unemployed than the national average. Eighty percent say they have been victims of discrimination from a very young age. Public officials consistently rationalized systematic exclusion of people of African descent with references to language and culture, even in cases involving second generation Belgians.
The Working Group repeatedly heard from civil society that Belgians of African descent faced “downgrading” and other employment challenges. People with university and graduate degrees reported working well-below their educational levels, including in manual labor despite possessing university certificates from Belgian universities. They also highlighted the difficulty in obtaining recognition of foreign diplomas. They also reported systematic exclusion from job assistance as job centers declined to refer people of African descent to employment opportunities at their educational levels. UNIA has also documented pervasive downgrading of employment and the prevalence of people of African descent working well below their education levels, despite the fact that they are among the most educated in the Belgian society.
The Working Group is concerned that primary and secondary school curricula do not adequately reflect the history of colonization as well as history and contributions of people of African descent in Belgium. Whether colonial history of Belgium is mentioned is largely dependent on interest and initiative of individual teachers. Where curriculum exists, it appears to recapitulate colonial propaganda including the suggestion that economic development came to Africa as a result of colonization while omitting references to key historical figures of African descent such as Patrice Lumumba. Reportedly, one-fourth of the high school graduates are unaware that Congo was a former Belgian colony.
At every interaction with civil society, the Working Group heard testimonies of the systematic practice of diverting children of African descent to vocational or manual training and out of the general education trajectory. This severely impacts the right to education and the right to childhood. Parents reported struggling to keep their children from being diverted, resisting transfers to vocational education, fighting to avoid having their children classified with behavioural or learning disorders and being threatened with the involvement of child protective services. A few parents discussed creative strategies to navigate these systems and secure their children’s education, including using the home school testing process and enrolling their children in boarding school. University students also reported being discouraged from continuing their educations or progressing.
Several community members discussed severe impact to their mental health due to racial discrimination. This included individualized racial slurs and hostile treatment, and several members of civil society in different locations mentioned the dramatic impact of daily racism on their lives – including depression and becoming withdrawn – and the fact that no one in authority in their schools ever noticed or intervened.
Civil society reported frequent discrimination in housing and rental markets. They would be immediately rejected by landlords who could detect an African accent over the phone or who recognized their names as African or informed the apartment was unavailable once they met the landlord face-to-face. Government informed of the use of “mystery calls,” a process involving the use of testers where landlords were identified as potentially discriminating unlawfully. The program was only recently commenced, pursuant to the Unia report and in conjunction with them, and few cases had been completed at the time of our visit.
The Working Group heard considerable testimony from civil society and community members on intersectionality, that people who meet the criteria for multiple marginalized groups may be particularly vulnerable, face extreme violence and harassment, and yet often remain invisible or deprioritized even within communities of African descent. This is particularly true for undocumented people of African descent whose lives are particularly precarious and who lack regularisation for years. In addition, women of African descent, particularly recent migrants, faced challenges pursuing justice, social support, or even shelter for domestic violence.
People of African descent and Muslim religious identity questioned why law enforcement authorities assumed they had terrorist ties. Some public officials implicitly acknowledged their role in this, including defending the use of racial profiling as a counter terrorism tactic and suggesting a false equivalence between anti-radicalism efforts and anti-racism programs, i.e., failing to understand that race-based assumptions regarding radicalism are inaccurate, grounded in bias, and divert key resources from protecting Belgian society from actual threats.
The Working Group is concerned about the rise of populist nationalism, racist hate speech and xenophobic discourse as a political tool. We reiterate the concerns raised by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in 2015 that the government has yet to adopt legislation declaring organizations which promote and incite racial discrimination illegal, in conformity with Article 4 of the Convention.
The use of blackface, racialized caricatures, and racist representations of people of African descent is offensive, dehumanizing and contemptuous. Regrettably, the re-publication of Tintin in the Congo unedited and without contextualization perpetuates negative stereotypes and either should be withdrawn or contextualized with an addendum reflecting current commitments to anti-racism.
The Working Group found little awareness about the International Decade for people of African descent. Civil society stands ready to support implementation of the Programme of Activities of the International Decade.
The following recommendations are intended to assist Belgium in its efforts to combat all forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, Afrophobia and related intolerance:
The Government of Belgium should adopt a comprehensive inter-federal National Action Plan against racism, upholding the commitments it made 2002, following the World Conference Against Racism. The National Action Plan against racism should be developed in partnership with people of African descent.
Adopt a National Strategy for the inclusion of people of African descent in Belgium, including migrants, and create a National Platform for people of African descent.
Establish an independent National Human Rights Institution, in conformity with the Paris Principles, and in partnership with people of African descent.
The Government should consider ratifying the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families.
The Working Group urges the Government to comply with the recommendations made by the Unia, including those relating to combating racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.
The Working Group urges the government to fund creative projects by people of African descent such as the House of African Culture, among others, with the view of raising the visibility of all forms of African expression and preserving the history and memory of the African Diaspora.
We urge universities throughout Belgium to endow chairs in African Studies, and prioritize the hiring of faculty of African descent, with the view to foster research and the dissemination of knowledge in this area, as well as to diversify the academy.
The Government should ensure funding for anti-racism associations run by people of African descent to enable them to be partners in combatting racism. The Working Group also recommends inclusive financing mechanisms for entrepreneurs of African Descent.
We welcome the renaming of the former Square du Bastion to Patrice Lumumba Square in June 2018 as well as an exhibit commemorating Congolese soldiers who fought in World War I, and encourage further, durable commemoration of contributions of people of African descent and the removal of markers of the colonial period.
We urge the government to give recognition and visibility to those who were killed during the period of colonization, to Congolese soldiers who fought during the two World Wars, and to acknowledge the cultural, economic, political and scientific contributions of people of African descent to the development of Belgian society through the establishment of monuments, memorial sites, street names, schools, municipal, regional and federal buildings. This should be done in consultation with civil society.
The Working Group recommends reparatory justice, with a view to closing the dark chapter in history and as a means of reconciliation and healing. We urge the government to issue an apology for the atrocities committed during colonization. The right to reparations for past atrocities is not subject to any statute of limitations. The Working Group recommends the CARICOM 10-point action plan for reparatory justice as a guiding framework.
The Working Group supports the establishment of a truth commission, and supports the draft bill before Parliament entitled “A memorial work plan to establish facts and the implication of Belgian institutions in Congo, Rwanda and Burundi”, dated 14 February 2017.
The authorities should ensure full access to archives relevant for research on Belgian colonialism.
The Working Group urges the relevant authorities to ensure that the RMCA be entrusted with tasks and responsibilities in the context of the International Decade for people of African Descent. In this context, the Working Group recommends that the RMCA be provided with appropriate financial and human resources, which would allow it to fully exercise the potential of this institution and engage in further improving and enriching its narrative, thus contributing to a better awareness and understanding of the tragic legacies of Belgian colonialism as well as past and contemporary human rights challenges of people of African descent.
The Working Group encourages the RMCA, in collaboration with historians from Africa and the diaspora, to remove all offensive racist exhibits and ensure detailed explanations and context to inform and educate visitors accurately about Belgium’s colonial history and its exploitation of Africa.
The Working Group urges the Government to provide specific, directed funding to the RMCA to enrich its postcolonial analysis. This funding should allow for innovations like QR codes on museum placards to provide more context and enrich intersectional analyses, including the historical and current interplay of race, gender, sexuality, migration status, religion and other relevant criteria.
The Working Group urges the Government to financially support a public education campaign in partnership with people of African descent, to learn and better understand the legacies of Belgian colonialism.
The Working Group strongly recommends that the Government collects, compiles, analyses, disseminates and publishes reliable statistical data disaggregated by race and on the basis of voluntary self-identification, and undertakes all necessary measures to assess regularly the situation of individuals and groups of individuals who are victims of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance.
The Working Group calls on the Government to address racial profiling and institute a policy of documenting and analyzing stops and searches nationwide, including race and skin color, in order to promote and ensure equality and fairness on policing; mitigate selective enforcement of the law; address enduring bias, stereotype, and beliefs about the need to surveil and control people of African descent.
Ensure that the robust framework set up for the prosecution of hate crimes is used more in practice.
Review diversity initiatives within justice institutions as well as other sectors including education and media, to develop clear benchmarks to increase diversity measurably and overcome structural discrimination and unconscious bias through positive measures, in accordance with the provisions of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.
Clarify and simplify jurisdiction of anti-discrimination authorities, creating one point of entry to ease reporting for victims and to coordinate and enhance accountability for perpetrators of racist harassment and violence, including accelerated judicial procedures.
The Government should review and ensure that textbooks and educational materials accurately reflect historical facts as they relate to past tragedies and atrocities such as enslavement, the trade in enslaved Africans and colonialism. Belgium should use UNESCO’s General History of Africa to inform its educational curriculum, among similarly oriented authoritative texts. We urge the government to promote greater knowledge and recognition of and respect for the culture, history and heritage of people of African descent living in Belgium. This should include the mandatory teaching of Belgium’s colonial history at all levels of the education system.
The Ministries of Education and the local Communities must determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in diversion of children of African descent from mainstream education into vocational or technical education streams, as compared to white Belgian children.
All teachers should complete anti-racism training, including training on implicit bias and specific manifestations in the context of their work. The training should involve testing to evaluate the understanding of diversity among teachers.
All public officials charged with education responsibilities must develop clear, objective, and transparent processes and criteria that govern when a child should be diverted from mainstream education, the need to guard against implicit bias and race-based outcomes in decision-making, and the right of parents to resist or overrule the recommendations of teachers without harassment.
The Government should take all necessary measures to combat racial discrimination and ensure full implementation of the right to adequate standard of living, including the right to adequate housing, access to affordable health care, employment and education for people of African descent.
Invest in integrated trust-building measures between the police, judicial institutions, the Unia, social integration institutions, anti-racist associations, and victims of racial discrimination and race and gender based violence, to ensure that racist acts, violence or crimes are systematically reported, prosecuted and compensated.
Belgium should conduct a racial equity audit within its public institutions and incentivize private employers and institutions to do the same. The purpose of the audit is to look for systemic bias and discrimination within the regular and routine operation of business. Belgium should commit to a public release of the findings and to implementing recommendations developed in the audit process.
Belgium should examine existing statistics and proxy data to determine whether people of African descent in Belgium, including Belgian citizens of African descent, experience and exercise their human rights consistently with the averages for all Belgians. This includes data on citizenship, parents’ place of birth, and regroupement famille (family reunification) data for reunification from countries of African descent.
Belgium should adopt clear, objective, and transparent protocols for job centers to ensure they do not perpetuate stereotype and bias, including requiring referrals to be based on level of education or experience, and recognizing that language should not be a disqualifying factor once a measurable competence is determined.
The Working Group recommends the Government support and facilitate an open debate on the use of blackface, racialized caricatures and racist representation of people of African descent. The republication of Tintin in the Congo should be withdrawn or contextualized with an addendum reflecting current commitments to anti-racism.
The Working Group calls on politicians at all levels of society to avoid instrumentalzing racism, xenophobia and hate speech in the pursuit of political office and to encourages them to promote inclusion, solidarity, non-discrimination and meaningful commitments to equality. Media is also reminded of its important role in this regard.
The Working Group reminds media of their important role as a public watchdog with special responsibilities for ensuring that factual and reliable information about people of African descent is reported.
The Working Group urges the Government to involve civil society organisations representing people of African descent when framing important legislations concerning them and providing those organizations with adequate funding.
The International Decade on People of African Descent should be officially launched in Belgium at the federal level.
The Working Group also encourages the Government to further implement the 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda within Belgium, with focus on indicators relevant for people of African descent, in partnership with civil society. In view of Statbel’s 2018 report on poverty, the Working Group calls on the government to eradicate structural racism to attain the Sustainable Development Goals.
The Working Group would like to reiterate its satisfaction at the Government’s willingness to engage in dialogue, cooperation and action to combat racial discrimination. We hope that our report will support the Government in this process and we express our willingness to assist in this important endeavour.
****
PASCOT Philippe
"Monsieur Macron est un menteur" Philippe Pascot - Les Incorrectibles
Edited: 201812161300
À l'occasion de la sortie de son livre "Pilleurs de vie", l'écrivain et homme politque Philippe Pascot était l'invité d' Eric Morillot dans #LesIncorrectibles sur Sud Radio.

Sans langue de bois il a évoqué les #GiletsJaunes, Emmanuel Macron, les fake news, l'industrie agroalimentaire et pharmaceutique et bien d'autres sujets sensibles.


Channel Four News
Why the number of border walls is increasing around the world
Edited: 201801170063
TESSENS Lucas
MERS start met de ontsluiting van het archief van de Vlaamse Media Maatschappij (VMM), de aanloop tot de Vlaamse Televisie Maatschappij (VTM).
Edited: 201711211640




De archivalia worden gescand en in PDF gepresenteerd op onze website (News Items).
MERS wil hiermee de archiefstukken veilig stellen voor verder onderzoek.
Bedenk dat in de jaren tachtig van vorige eeuw quasi alle documenten uitgetikt werden op een typmachine. Van een digitaal archief was dan ook geen sprake.
De kwaliteit van de originele stukken is in een aantal gevallen middelmatig tot slecht. Dat heeft vele oorzaken: beïnkting van het gebruikte typmachinelint, faxen op termisch papier, slechte kwaliteit van telexberichten, slecht gemaakte copies, minderwaardig fotopapier, etc.
Inhoudelijk is het archief rijk. De stukken tonen aan hoe moeilijk het is geweest om eensgezindheid te krijgen binnen de uitgeversgroep (dag- en weekbladen) om in te stappen in de wereld van de commerciële televisie.
Parallel hiermee diende het volledige wettelijk kader (federaal en gewestelijk) te worden geschapen om commerciële TV mogelijk te maken. De inspanningen van de ene lobby-groep werden teniet gedaan door de andere. Bovendien zaten verschillende fracties van eenzelfde groep niet op dezelfde golflengte. Dat was waar binnen de politieke partijen, binnen de dagbladgroepen, de BRT, de vakbonden, ... De weekbladen vormden een uitzondering: zij zaten vanaf 1980 op eenzelfde lijn. Die lijn evolueerde van anti-BRT-reclame naar radicaal pro-commerciële TV in handen van de uitgevers. En dat terwijl de weekbladpers in het begin nauwelijks aan de bak kwam als gesprekspartner voor de regering. De dagbladuitgevers en de BRT bezetten in 1980 nog het forum en de lobby-kanalen.
Een voortdurende dreiging vormde de mogelijke marktbezetting door een Vlaams RTL-kanaal.
Ook het aantal kanalen op de kabel (teledistributie) dreigde uitgeput te raken door de opkomst van satelliettelevisie.
De hele discussie werd dan nog doorkruist door de financieringsperikelen van de openbare omroep en de eis voor de volledige ristornering van het kijk- en luistergeld naar de Gemeenschappen. Zolang dat laatste niet was gebeurd, kon de Vlaamse overheid tegenover de BRT argumenteren dat er een geldgebrek was.
In diezelfde periode kwam ook de Mediaraad tot stand.
Hiermee is voldoende aangeduid hoe complex en chaotisch de aanloop tot VTM wel is geweest.






Voor een stukje van de politieke historiek verwijzen wij naar een tijdlijn die aantoont dat VTM in een wel heel unieke periode tot stand kwam: de socialisten stonden op alle fronten buitenspel.

News RT
Catalonië: 90 procent stemt voor onafhankelijkheid, zegt de Catalaanse regering
Edited: 201710020922


news
wet 308 afgeschaft in Jordanië: geen pardon meer voor verkrachter die met slachtoffer wil trouwen
Edited: 201708071056
News
Justitie Frankrijk wil Eternit-zaak zonder gevolg klasseren. Asbest-slachtoffers protesteren in Valenciennes.
Edited: 201707091305
news
9 juli 2017: grootste anti-Erdogan betoging in Istanboel
Edited: 201707090223
News
23 juni 2017: Erdogan bant evolutietheorie van Darwin in middelbare scholen
Edited: 201706230339
Er komt ook minder aandacht voor de seculiere erfenis die Ataturk naliet en waarmee de Turkse grondwet doorweven is.
News
François Fillon officieel in staat van beschuldiging gesteld
Edited: 201703151037
Emile Friant (1863-1932), le dernier naturaliste? (Nancy)
Edited: 201702150209
World inequality
Edited: 201701161104
In the run-up to the Davos meeting hosted by the World Economic Forum in Switzerland, observers have pointed out that the success of nationalist populism around the world might be connected to rising inequality. According to Oxfam, the richest eight people own as much as the whole poorer half of the world’s population.

Infographic: The World's Staggering Wealth Divide | Statista
news
specialisten dwingen patiënten éénpersoonskamer te nemen in ziekenhuis
Edited: 201611290037
op die manier kunnen zij een ereloonsupplement aanrekenen.
Afpersing of hoe noem je dat?
En wat doet het parket in zo'n geval van flagrant misbruik?
ERDOGAN Asli
PEN
Edited: 201611151161
15 November 2016 – On the Day of the Imprisoned Writer take action with PEN for writers imprisoned for their work.

On 17 August 2016, renowned novelist and PEN member Aslı Erdoğan was arrested at her home in Istanbul, Turkey. A columnist and member of the pro-Kurdish opposition daily Özgür Gündem’s advisory board, which was shut down under the state of emergency that followed the failed coup of 15 July 2016, her arrest came alongside that of more than 20 other journalists and employees of the paper.

Erdoğan, who suffers from asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and diabetes, was sent to a jail in Istanbul on preliminary charges of “membership of a terrorist organisation” and “undermining national unity.” She has been in pre-trial detention since her arrest, and no date has currently been set for her trial.

Erdoğan’s arrest comes amid heightened concerns for rights and freedoms following the failed coup attempt in July. As of 24 October 2016, 135 journalists had been charged and were in pre- trial detention; at least 8 others were detained without charge and others were in police custody under investigation.

The Turkish authorities have shut down more than 100 media outlets, censored at least 30 news websites, and stripped more than 600 members of the press of their credentials; 29 publishing houses have been ordered closed and there have been reports of wide-spread ill-treatment in custody. Over 70,000 people have detained, placed under investigation, suspended or fired, including teachers, civil servants, academics and others.

Earlier this month, Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan declared that he would extend the country’s state of emergency by 90 days, holding on to his almost unlimited discretionary powers to rule by decree. The extension came into effect on 19 October and will last for an additional 90 days, and could be renewed.

While recognizing the right of the Turkish authorities to bring those responsible for crimes during the attempted coup to justice, PEN International calls on the Turkish authorities to safeguard freedom of expression, human rights and respect their obligations under international law during the declared state of emergency and to release all journalists and writers held solely in connection with their peaceful exercise of their right to freedom of expression, as appears to be the case with Aslı Erdoğan.

‘I have been very happy and honoured to be chosen as an honorary member of Danish PEN. On August 16, my apartment was busted by special forces policemen… I spent 72 hours in custody, in a cage. I have declared several times to the police, prosecutor and the judge that as a member of the ‘board of advisors’ of Özgür Gündem, I have no legal responsibility for the paper. I hope to be released as soon as I face the real trial.’ – Excerpt from a letter Erdoğan sent to Danish PEN.

Take Action – share on Twitter, Facebook and other social media

Send Appeals to the Turkish authorities:

Urging them to immediately release Aslı Erdoğan who PEN believes is held solely in connection with her peaceful exercise of her right to freedom of expression;
Calling for all detained writers and journalists to have access to lawyers and to be released if they are not to be charged with a recognizably criminal offence and tried promptly in accordance with international fair trial standards;
Calling on them not to use the state of emergency to crack down on peaceful dissent, civil society, media and education.
news
geneesmiddel Depakine in opspraak
Edited: 201610180034
Depakine Chrono is een geneesmiddel voor de behandeling van epilepsie en manie.
Depakine Chrono wordt gebruikt voor de behandeling van:
- Verschillende vormen van epilepsie, zowel alleen als in combinatie met andere geneesmiddelen.
- Manie, waarbij u zich erg opgewonden, opgetogen, geagiteerd, enthousiast of hyperactief kunt voelen. Manie komt voor bij een ziekte met de naam ‘bipolaire stoornis’. Depakine Chrono kan worden gebruikt wanneer lithium niet kan worden toegepast.
Council of Europe
MSI-MED (2016)09rev2 - Recommendation CM/Rec(2017x)xx of the Committee of Ministers to member states on media pluralism and transparency of media ownership - Second revised draft
Edited: 201609201696
MSI-MED (2016)09rev2
Recommendation CM/Rec(2017x)xx of the Committee of Ministers to member states on media pluralism and transparency of media ownership
Second revised draft
Preamble

1. Media freedom and pluralism are crucial components of the right to freedom of expression, as guaranteed by Article 10 of the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (ETS No. 5, hereinafter “the Convention”). They are central to the functioning of a democratic society as they help to ensure the availability and accessibility of diverse information and views, on the basis of which individuals can form and express their opinions and exchange information and ideas.
2. The media play essential roles in democratic society, by widely disseminating information, ideas, analysis and opinions; acting as public watchdogs, and providing forums for public debate. In the present multi-media ecosystem, these roles continue to be fulfilled by traditional media, but are also increasingly performed by other media and non-media actors, from multinational corporations to non-governmental organisations and individuals.
3. Pluralist democratic societies are made up of a wide range of identities, ideas and interests. It is imperative that this diversity can be communicated through a range of independent and autonomous channels and outlets, thus creating an informed society, contributing to mutual understanding and fostering social cohesion.
4. Different types of media, along with different genres or forms of editorial content or programming contribute to diversity of content. Although content focusing on news and current affairs is of most direct relevance for fostering an informed society, other genres are also very important. Examples include cultural and educational content and entertainment, as well as content aimed at specific sections of society, such as local content.
5. In the present multi-media environment, online media and other internet platforms enable access to a growing range of information from diverse sources. This transformation in how media content is made available and used creates new opportunities for more and more people to interact and communicate with each other and to participate in public debate.
6. This technological evolution also raises concerns for media pluralism. While variety in media sources and types can be instrumental in enhancing diversity of media content and exposure to such diversity, it does not of itself guarantee it. Individuals still have to select what media to use and what content to watch, listen to or read among vast quantities of diverse content distributed across various media. This may result in them selecting or being exposed to information confirming their existing views and opinions, which can, in turn, generate fragmentation and result in a polarised society. While limited news resources and self-imposed restrictions on the choice of content are not new phenomena, the media and internet intermediaries may amplify their inherent risks, through their ability to control the flow, availability, findability and accessibility of information and other content online. This is particularly troubling if the individual users are not aware of these processes or do not understand them.
7. As new actors enter the evolving online market, the ensuing competitive pressures and a shift in advertising revenues towards the internet have contributed to an increase in media consolidation and convergence. Single or a few media owners or groups acquire positions of considerable power where they can separately or jointly set the agenda of public debate and significantly influence or shape public opinion, reproducing the same content across all platforms on which they are present. Convergence trends also lead to cost-cutting, job losses in journalism and media sectors, and the risk of financial dependencies for journalists and the media. These developments may cause a reduction in diversity of news and content generally and ultimately impoverish public debate.
8. Fresh appraisals of existing approaches to media pluralism are called for in order to address the challenges for pluralism resulting from how users and businesses have adapted their behaviour to technological developments. New policy responses and strategic solutions are needed to sustain independent, quality journalism and diverse content across all media types and formats.
9. There is a need for an enhanced role for independent public service media to counteract on-going processes of concentration and convergence in the media. By virtue of their remit, public service media are particularly suited to address the informational needs and interests of all sections of society, as is true of community media in respect of their constituent users. It is of utmost importance for public service media to have within their mandates the responsibility to foster political pluralism and awareness of diverse opinions, notably by providing different groups in society – including cultural, linguistic, ethnic, religious or other minorities – with an opportunity to receive and impart information, to express themselves and to exchange ideas.
10. In light of the increased range of media and content, it is very important for individuals to possess the cognitive, technical and social skills and capacities that enable them to critically analyse media content, and to understand the ethical implications of media and technology. Media literacy contributes to media pluralism and diversity by empowering individuals to effectively access, evaluate and create diverse types of content; by reducing the digital divide; facilitating informed decision-making, especially in respect of political and public affairs and commercial content, and by enabling the identification and countering of false or misleading information and harmful and illegal online content.
11. The adoption and effective implementation of media-ownership regulation plays an important role in respect of media pluralism. Such regulation should ensure transparency in media ownership; it should address issues such as cross-media ownership, direct and indirect media ownership and effective control and influence over the media. It should also ensure that there is effective and manifest separation between the exercise of political authority or influence and control of the media or decision making as regards media content.
12. Transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing help to increase media accountability. Transparency and media literacy are therefore indispensable tools for individuals to make informed decisions about which media they use and how they use them, to search for, access and impart information and ideas of all kinds. This makes them practical instruments of effective pluralism.
13. Against this background, the present Recommendation reaffirms the importance of existing Council of Europe standards dealing with different aspects of media pluralism and transparency of media ownership and the need to fully implement them in democratic societies. The Recommendation builds further on those standards, adjusting, supplementing and reinforcing them, as necessary, to ensure their continued relevance in the current multi-media ecosystem.
Under the terms of Article 15.b of the Statute of the Council of Europe (ETS No. 1), the Committee of Ministers recommends that governments of member States:
i. fully implement the guidelines set out in the appendix to this recommendation;
ii. remain vigilant to, and address, threats to media pluralism and transparency of media ownership by regularly monitoring the state of media pluralism in their national media markets, assessing risks to media freedom and pluralism and adopting appropriate regulatory responses, including by paying systematic attention to such focuses in the on-going reviews of their national laws and practices;
iii. fully implement, if they have not already done so, previous Committee of Ministers’ Recommendations and Declarations dealing with different aspects of media pluralism and transparency of media ownership, in particular those specified in the guidelines appended to the present Recommendation;
iv. promote the goals of this recommendation at the national and international levels and engage and co-operate with all interested parties to achieve those goals.

Appendix to Recommendation

Guidelines

In the context of this Recommendation, unless otherwise specified, the media are generally understood as including print, broadcast and online media.
I. A favourable environment for freedom of expression and media freedom

1. The principles of freedom of expression and media freedom, as grounded in the Convention, must continue to be developed in a way that takes full account of the features of the present multi-media ecosystem, in which a range of new media actors have come to the fore.
2. States have a positive obligation to foster a favourable environment for freedom of expression, in which everyone can exercise their right to freedom of expression and participate in public debate effectively, irrespective of whether or not their views are received favourably by the State or others. States should guarantee free and pluralistic media for their valuable contribution to robust public debate in which societal diversity can be articulated and explored.
3. National legislative and policy frameworks should safeguard the editorial independence and operational autonomy of all media so that they can carry out their key tasks in democratic society. The frameworks should be designed and implemented in such ways as to prevent the State, or any powerful political, economic, religious or other groups from acquiring dominance and exerting pressure on the media.
4. Relevant legislation should ensure that the media have the freedom at all times to provide accurate and reliable reporting on matters of public interest, in particular concerning vital democratic processes and activities, such as elections, referenda and public consultations on matters of general interest. Adequate safeguards should also be put in place to prevent interference with editorial independence of the media in relation to coverage of conflicts, crises and other sensitive situations where quality journalism and reporting are key tools in countering propaganda and disinformation.
5. In a favourable environment for freedom of expression, media regulatory authorities and other authorities or entities entrusted with responsibility for regulating or monitoring other (media) service providers or media pluralism must be able to carry out their remit in an effective, transparent and accountable manner. A prerequisite for them to be able to do so is that they themselves enjoy independence that is guaranteed in law and borne out in practice.
6. The independence of the authorities and entities referred to in the previous paragraph should be guaranteed by ensuring that they: have open and transparent appointment and dismissal procedures; have adequate human and financial resources and autonomous budget allocation; work to transparent procedures and decision-making; have the power to take autonomous decisions and enforce them, and that their decisions are subject to appeal.

7. States should ensure transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing, as well as promote media literacy, in order to provide individuals with the information and critical awareness that they need in order to access diverse information and participate fully in the present multi-media ecosystem.
II. Media pluralism and diversity of media content

General requirements of pluralism
1. As ultimate guarantors of pluralism, States have a positive obligation to put in place an appropriate legislative and policy framework to that end. This implies adopting appropriate measures to ensure sufficient variety in the overall range of media types, bearing in mind differences in terms of their purposes, functions and geographical reach. The complementary nature of different media types strengthens external pluralism and can contribute to creating and maintaining diversity of media content.
2. States are called upon to ensure that there is periodic independent monitoring and evaluation of the state of media pluralism in their jurisdictions based on a set of objective and transparent criteria for identifying risks to the variety in ownership of media sources and outlets, the diversity of media types, the diversity of viewpoints represented by political, ideological, cultural and social groups, and the diversity of interests and viewpoints relevant to local and regional communities. States are further urged to develop and enforce appropriate regulatory and policy responses effectively addressing any risks found.

Specific requirements of pluralism
Diversity of content
3. States should adopt regulatory and policy measures to promote the availability and accessibility of the broadest possible diversity of media content as well as the representation of the whole diversity of society in the media, including by supporting initiatives by media to those ends.

States should encourage the development of open, independent, transparent and participatory initiatives by social media, media stakeholders, civil society and academia, that seek to improve effective exposure of users to the broadest possible diversity of media content online.

Wherever the visibility, findability and accessibility of media content online is influenced by automated processes, whether they are purely automated processes or used in combination with human decisions, States should encourage social media, media stakeholders, civil society and academia to engage in open, independent, transparent and participatory initiatives that:

- increase the transparency of the processes of online distribution of media content, including automated processes;

- assess the impact of such processes on users’ effective exposure to a broad diversity of media content, and

- seek to improve these distribution processes in order to improve users’ exposure to the broadest possible diversity of media content.

4. States should make particular efforts, taking advantage of technological developments, to ensure that the broadest possible diversity of media content, including in different languages, is accessible to all groups in society, particularly those which may have specific needs or face disadvantage or obstacles when accessing media content, such as minority groups, children, the elderly and persons with cognitive or physical disabilities.
5. Diversity of media content can only be properly gauged when there are high levels of transparency about editorial and commercial content: media and other actors should adhere to the highest standards of transparency regarding the provenance of their content and always signal clearly when content is provided by political sources or involves advertising or other forms of commercial communications, such as sponsoring and product placement. This also applies to user-generated content and to hybrid forms of content, including branded content, native advertising and advertorials and infotainment.
Institutional arrangement of media pluralism
6. States should recognise the crucial role of public service media in fostering public debate, political pluralism and awareness of diverse opinions. States should accordingly guarantee adequate conditions for public service media to continue to play this role in the multi-media landscape, including by providing them with appropriate support for innovation and the development of digital strategies and new services.
7. States should adopt appropriate specific measures to protect the editorial independence and operational autonomy of public service media by keeping the influence of the State at arm’s length. The supervisory and management boards of public service media must be able to operate in a fully independent manner and the rules governing their composition and appointment procedures must contain adequate checks and balances to ensure that independence.
8. States should also ensure stable, sustainable, transparent and adequate funding for public service media in order to guarantee their independence from governmental, political and commercial pressures and enable them to provide a broad range of pluralistic information and diverse content. This can also help to counterbalance any risks caused by a situation of media concentration.
9. States should encourage and support the establishment and functioning of community, minority, regional and local media, including by providing financial mechanisms to foster their development. Such independent media give a voice to communities and individuals on topics relevant to their needs and interests, and are thus instrumental in creating public exposure for issues that may not be represented in the mainstream media and in facilitating inclusive and participatory processes of dialogue within and across communities and at regional and local levels.
10. States should facilitate access to cross-border media, which serve communities outside the country where they are established, supplement national media and can help certain groups in society, including immigrants, refugees and diaspora communities, to maintain ties with their countries of origin, native cultures and languages.

Support measures for the media and media pluralism
11. For the purpose of enhancing media pluralism, States should develop strategies and mechanisms to support professional news media and quality journalism, including news production capable of addressing diverse needs and interests of groups that may not be sufficiently represented in the media. They should explore a wide range of measures, including various forms of non-financial and financial support such as advertising and subsidies, which would be available to different media types and platforms, including those of online media. States are also encouraged to support projects relating to journalism education, media research and innovative approaches to strengthen media pluralism and freedom of expression.
12. Support measures should have clearly defined purposes; be based on pre-determined clear, precise, equitable, objective and transparent criteria, and be implemented in full respect of the editorial and operational autonomy of the media. Such measures could include positive measures to enhance the quantity and quality of media coverage of issues that are of interest and relevance to groups which are underrepresented in the media.
13. Support measures should be administered in a non-discriminatory and transparent manner by a body enjoying functional and operational autonomy such as an independent media regulatory authority. An effective monitoring system should also be introduced to supervise such measures, to ensure that they serve the purpose for which they are intended.
III. Regulation of media ownership: ownership, control and concentration

1. In order to guarantee effective pluralism in their jurisdictions, States should adopt and implement a comprehensive regulatory framework for media ownership and control that is adapted to the current state of the media industry. Such a framework should take full account of media convergence and the impact of online media.
Ownership and control
2. Regulation of competition in the media market including merger control should prevent individual actors from acquiring significant market power in the overall national media sector or in a specific media market/sector at the national level or sub-national levels, to the extent that such concentration of ownership limits meaningful choice in the available media content.
3. Media ownership regulation should apply to all media and could include restrictions on horizontal, vertical and cross-media ownership, including by determining thresholds of ownership in line with Recommendation CM/Rec 2007(2) of the Committee of Ministers to member states on media pluralism and diversity of media content. Those thresholds may be based on a number of criteria such as capital shares, voting rights, circulation, revenues, audience share or audience reach.
4. States should set criteria for determining ownership and control of media companies by explicitly addressing direct and beneficial ownership and control. Relevant criteria can include proprietary, financial or voting strength within a media company or companies and the determination of the different levels of strength that lead to exercising control or direct or indirect influence over the strategic decision-making of the company or companies including their editorial policy.
5. As the key democratic tasks of the media include holding authorities to account, legislation should stipulate that the exercise of political authority or influence is incompatible with involvement in the ownership, management or editorial decision-making of the media. The incompatibility of these functions should be recognised as a matter of principle and should not be made conditional on the existence of particular conditions. The criteria of incompatibility and a range of appropriate measures for addressing conflicts of interest should be set out clearly in law.
6. Any restrictions on the extent of foreign ownership of media should apply in a non-discriminatory manner to all such companies and should take full account of the States’ positive obligation to guarantee pluralism and of the relevant guidelines set out in this Recommendation.
Concentration
7. States are also encouraged to develop and apply suitable methodologies for the assessment of media concentration. In addition to measuring the availability of media sources, this assessment should reflect the real influence of individual media by adopting an audience-based approach and using appropriate sets of criteria to measure the use and impact of individual media on opinion-forming.
8. Media ownership regulation should include procedures to prevent media mergers or acquisitions that could adversely affect pluralism of media ownership or diversity of media content. Such procedures could involve a requirement for media owners to notify the relevant independent regulatory authority of any proposed media merger or acquisition whenever the ownership and control thresholds, as set out in legislation, are met.
9. The relevant independent regulatory authority should be vested with powers to assess the expected impact of any proposed concentration on media pluralism and to make recommendations or decisions, as appropriate, about whether the proposed merger or acquisition should be cleared, subject or not to any restrictions or conditions, including divestiture. Decisions of the independent authority should be subject to judicial review.
IV. Transparency of media ownership, organisation and financing

1. States should guarantee a regime of transparency regarding media ownership that ensures the availability of the data necessary for informed regulation and decision-making and enables the public to access those data in order to help them to analyse and evaluate the information, ideas and opinions disseminated by the media.
2. To this end, States should adopt and implement legislation that sets out enforceable disclosure/transparency obligations for media in a clear and precise way. Such obligations should, as a minimum, include the following information:
- Legal name and contact details of a media outlet;
- Name(s) and contact details of the direct owner(s) with shareholdings enabling them to exercise influence on the operation and strategic decision-making of the media outlet. States are recommended to apply a threshold of 5% shareholding for the purpose of the disclosure obligations.
- Identity and contact details of natural persons with beneficial shareholdings. Beneficial shareholding applies to natural persons who ultimately own or control shares in a media outlet or on whose behalf those shares are held, enabling them to indirectly exercise control or significant influence on the operation and strategic decision-making of the media outlet.
- Information on the nature and extent of the share-holdings or voting rights of the above legal and/or natural persons in other media, media-related or advertising companies which could lead to decision-making influence over those companies, or positions held in political parties;
- Name(s) of the persons with actual editorial responsibility or the actual authors of editorial content;
- Changes in ownership and control arrangements of a media outlet.
3. The scope of the above minima for disclosure/transparency obligations for the media includes legal and natural persons based in other jurisdictions and their relevant interests in other jurisdictions.
4. High levels of transparency should also be ensured with regard to the sources of financing of media outlets in order to provide a comprehensive picture of the different sources of potential interference with the editorial and operational independence of the media and allow for effective monitoring and controlling of such risks.
5. To this end, States should adopt and implement legislation that sets out enforceable disclosure of the following information:
- Information on the sources of the media outlet’s income, including from State and other funding mechanisms and (State) advertising.
- The existence of structural relationships or contractual cooperation with other media or advertising companies, political parties or the State, including in respect of State advertising;
6. Legislation should set out clear criteria as to which media are subject to these reporting obligations. The obligations may be limited with regard to factors such as the commercial nature of the media outlet, a wide audience reach, exercise of editorial control, frequency and regularity of publication or broadcast, etc., or a combination thereof. Legislation should also determine the timeframe within which reporting obligations must be met.
7. Such legislation should also require the maintenance of a public, online database of media ownership and control arrangements in the State, with disaggregated data about different types of media (markets/sectors) and regional and/or local levels, as relevant. Those databases should be kept up to date on a rolling basis and they should be available to the public free of charge. They should be accessible and searchable; their contents should be made available in open formats and there should not be restrictions on their re-use.

8. Reporting requirements relating to media ownership should include the provision of:
- A description of media ownership and control arrangements for media under its jurisdiction (including media whose services are directed at other countries);
- A description of changes to the media ownership and control arrangements within the State during the reporting period;
- An analysis of the impact of those changes on media pluralism in the State.
9. Legislation should provide for the publication of reports on media ownership to be accompanied by appropriate explanations of the data and the methodologies used to collect and organise them, in order to help members of the public to interpret the data and understand their significance.
10. States should issue clear, up-to-date guidance on the interrelationship and implications of the different regulatory regimes and on how to implement them correctly and coherently. That guidance could take the form of user-friendly guidelines, handbooks, manuals, etc.
11. States should also facilitate inter-agency cooperation, including the relevant exchange of information about media ownership held by media regulatory authorities, competition authorities and company registers. Similarly, the exchange of information and best practices with other national authorities, both within their own jurisdiction and in other jurisdictions, should be facilitated.
V. Media literacy/education

1. States should introduce legislative provisions or strengthen existing ones that promote media literacy with a view to enabling individuals to access, understand, critically analyse, evaluate, use and create content through a range of legacy and digital (including social) media.
2. States should also develop a national media literacy policy and ensure its operationalisation and implementation through (multi-)annual action plans. A key strategy for that purpose could be to support the creation of a national media literacy network comprising a wide range of stakeholders, or the further development of such a network where it already exists.
3. In the multi-media ecosystem, media literacy is essential for people of all ages and all walks of life. Law and/or policy measures promoting media literacy should thus help to develop the teaching of media literacy in school curricula at all levels and as part of lifelong learning cycles, including by providing suitable training and adequate resources for teachers and educational institutions to develop teaching programmes. Any measures adopted should be developed in consultation with teachers and trainers with a view to ensuring a fair and appropriate integration of relevant activities in work-flows. Any measures adopted should not interfere with the academic autonomy of educational institutions in curricular matters.
4. States should encourage all media, without interfering with their editorial independence, to promote media literacy through policies, strategies and activities. They should also promote media literacy through support schemes for media, taking into account the particular roles of public service media and community media.
5. States should ensure that independent national regulatory authorities have the scope and resources to promote media literacy in ways that are relevant to their mandates and encourage them to do so.
6. States are encouraged to include in their national media literacy programmes focuses on media pluralism and transparency of media ownership in order to help citizens to make an informed and critical evaluation of the information and ideas propagated via the media. To this end, States are called upon to include in their strategies for ensuring transparency in the media sector educational content which enables individuals to use information relating to media ownership, organisation and financing, in order to better understand the different influences on the production, collection, curation and dissemination of media content.
EURONEWS
Kenya burns over a hundred tons of elephant tusks and calls for a worldwide ban on ivory sales
Edited: 201604301463
news
cel van Breivik telt 3 kamers, nu krijgt hij 36.000 euro wegens vernederende behandeling
Edited: 201604210911
SEMİH İDİZ (Hurriyet Daily News)
Böhmermann case likely to backfire on Erdoğan
Edited: 201604190020
(...) No one in Europe is willing to provide Erdoğan with any advantage that would give him added justification to pursue his authoritarian ways in Turkey. In fact, many believe that this case will backfire and turn from being a case against Böhmermann into becoming a case against Erdoğan, who will have provided a platform in Europe for his critics to rail against him. (...)
news
Panama Papers: BBI betreurt dat het geen volledige inzage krijgt in Belgische luik
Edited: 201604111341
De baas van de Bijzondere Belastinginspectie, Frank Philipsen, betreurt dat de informatie uit de zogenoemde Panama Papers te traag bij zijn diensten terechtkomt.
De Tijd schrijft vandaag (20160411) dat de Gentse gewestelijke BBI-directeur, Karel Anthonissen, reeds in 2009 het mechanisme dat in het Dexia-dossier opdook, heeft aangekaart bij de BBI-top, maar dat die naliet de hele Panama-route bloot te leggen. Anthonissen is de ambtenaar die de zaak tegen Karel De Gucht opende én door de top van Financiën en de BBI gewantrouwd wordt.
KB-Lux
Als we verder terug gaan in de tijd dan merken we dat er reeds in 2000-2001 aanwijzingen waren dat Dexia via Cregem klanten aan buitenlandse constructies hielp. Er liep toen een gerechtelijk onderzoek in Charleroi. De mechanismen vertoonden veel gelijkenissen met die van KB-Lux.
In de KB-Lux-affaire oordeelde het Hof van Beroep (hierin gesteund door het Hof van Cassatie) - na 14 jaar procederen! - dat de bewijzen in de zaak op onwettige manier waren verkregen. De speurders hadden zogenaamd fouten begaan bij het verzamelen van bewijzen. Maar in 2015 werden ze door de correctionele rechtbank vrijgesproken. In een cirkelredenering kan je dan ook zeggen dat de uitspraak van het Hof van Beroep op los zand was gebouwd.

Wellicht spookt bij de protagonisten van de Panama Papers ook die achterdocht tegen justitie door het hoofd en worden de namen in het Dexia-dossier (en de talrijke andere dossiers) om taktische redenen achter gehouden.
Op de kabinetten staat de telefoon niet stil.

news
Joëlle Milquet (1961) (CDH) treedt af na inverdenkingstelling verkiezingsfraude
Edited: 201604111332
RT News
What is possibly a one-off Soviet-era edition of the Demons by the famous Russian writer Fyodor Dostoyevsky was auctioned-off in Moscow on Thursday, selling for a massive 3,400,000 roubles ($43,991).
Edited: 201604090148
Dostojevski
earth moon animated gif photo: Moonoverwater Moonoverwater.gif
news
Mohamed Abrini (31) is opgepakt in Anderlecht. Hij is meer dan waarschijnlijk de "man met het hoedje", de derde terrorist vanop Zaventem die nog gezocht werd. Dat heeft VRT Nieuws vernomen uit verschillende bronnen. Hij werd al sinds de aanslagen in Parijs gezocht. Ook een tweede verdachte, Osama Krayem, is gearresteerd. Het gaat om de man die in het metrostation Pétillon in Brussel een vluchtig contact heeft gehad met de kamikaze die zich opblies in het metrostation Maalbeek.
Edited: 201604081616
news
Pfizer and Allergan call off a planned $160 billion merger due to changes in U.S. tax inversion regulations.
Edited: 201604071709
news
kindermisbruik in de kerk: geen strafonderzoek aan de top
Edited: 201604061854
ra-ra, hoe zou het toch komen dat de top steeds ontsnapt wegens verjaring en procedurekwesties? Is de straffeloosheid georganiseerd?, hoor ik u vragen.
Nog even de namen: Godfried Danneels, Roger Vangheluwe, André-Joseph Léonard.
news
Belgische farmabedrijven Sterop en Andacon leverden efedrine aan Mexicaanse drugsbaron Ezio Figueroa-Vazquez. Die maakte er 'chrystal meth' mee.
Edited: 201604060929
In de Tweede Wereldoorlog werd het middel door zowel de geallieerden als de asmogendheden gebruikt. Door het gebruik van methamfetamine konden soldaten langer doorgaan met vechten en kregen ze minder snel honger.
Het is bewezen dat 'chrystal meth' in huidige conflictzones, zoals het Midden-Oosten, gebruikt wordt.
Captagon is zeer populair in het MO.

Meer over Sterop en Sophie Eykerman.
news
conflict tussen Armenië en Azerbaijan over Nagorno-Karabakh laait weer op
Edited: 201604020918


Nagorno-Karabakh is een enclave binnen de grenzen van Azerbaijan maar wordt gecontrolleerd door ethnische Armeniërs. Over het betwiste gebied heerst sinds 1994 een wapenstilstand die met regelmaat wordt geschonden.

Nagorno-Karabakh: 11.430 km²; 145.000 inwoners; leunt cultureel/religieus aan bij Armenië
Armenië: 29.743 km²; 3.056.000 inwoners; 100% katholiek
Azerbaijan: 86.600 km²; 9.780.000 inwoners; 93,4% islam

Is ook in dit schaakspel de hand van Erdogan aanwezig? Hij was er wel als de kippen bij om te verklaren dat hij Azerbaijan tot het einde toe zal steunen.
Geopolitiek ligt Armenië vervelend in de weg om een corridor te maken tussen de Middellandse en de Kaspische Zee. En dan zijn er nog de rebellerende Koerden in Oost-Turkije en in Noord-Irak.
Learning to Code Yields Diminishing Returns - The future of jobs - A review of Rushkoff's book
Edited: 201604011318

Looking for job security in the knowledge economy? Just learn to code. At least, that’s what we’ve been telling young professionals and mid-career workers alike who want to hack it in the modern workforce—in fact, it’s advice I’ve given myself. And judging by the proliferation of coding schools and bootcamps we’ve seen over the past few years, not a few have eagerly heeded that instruction, thinking they’re shoring up their livelihoods in the process.

Unfortunately, many have already learned the hard way that even the best coding chops have their limits. More and more, "learn to code" is looking like bad advice.

CODING CAN’T SAVE YOU
Anyone competent in languages such as Python, Java, or even web coding like HTML and CSS, is currently in high demand by businesses that are still just gearing up for the digital marketplace. However, as coding becomes more commonplace, particularly in developing nations like India, we find a lot of that work is being assigned piecemeal by computerized services such as Upwork to low-paid workers in digital sweatshops.

This trend is bound to increase. The better opportunity may be to use your coding skills to develop an app or platform yourself, but this means competing against thousands of others doing the same thing—and in an online marketplace ruled by just about the same power dynamics as the digital music business.

Besides, learning code is hard, particularly for adults who don’t remember their algebra and haven’t been raised thinking algorithmically. Learning code well enough to be a competent programmer is even harder.

Although I certainly believe that any member of our highly digital society should be familiar with how these platforms work, universal code literacy won’t solve our employment crisis any more than the universal ability to read and write would result in a full-employment economy of book publishing.

It’s actually worse. A single computer program written by perhaps a dozen developers can wipe out hundreds of jobs. As the author and entrepreneur Andrew Keen has pointed out, digital companies employ 10 times fewer people per dollar earned than traditional companies. Every time a company decides to relegate its computing to the cloud, it's free to release a few more IT employees.

Most of the technologies we're currently developing replace or obsolesce far more employment opportunities than they create. Those that don’t—technologies that require ongoing human maintenance or participation in order to work—are not supported by venture capital for precisely this reason. They are considered unscalable because they demand more paid human employees as the business grows.

TRAINING OUR ROBO-REPLACEMENTS
Finally, there are jobs for those willing to assist with our transition to a more computerized society. As employment counselors like to point out, self-checkout stations may have cost you your job as a supermarket cashier, but there’s a new opening for that person who assists customers having trouble scanning their items at the kiosk, swiping their debit cards, or finding the SKU code for Swiss chard. It’s a slightly more skilled job and may even pay better than working as a regular cashier.

But it’s a temporary position: Soon enough, consumers will be as proficient at self-checkout as they are at getting cash from the bank machine, and the self-checkout tutor will be unnecessary. By then, digital tagging technology may have advanced to the point where shoppers just leave stores with the items they want and get billed automatically.

For the moment, we’ll need more of those specialists than we’ll be able to find—mechanics to fit our current cars with robot drivers, engineers to replace medical staff with sensors, and to write software for postal drones. There will be an increase in specialized jobs before there's a precipitous drop. Already in China, the implementation of 3-D printing and other automated solutions is threatening hundreds of thousands of high-tech manufacturing jobs, many of which have existed for less than a decade.

American factories would be winning back this business but for a shortage of workers with the training necessary to run an automated factory. Still, this wealth of opportunity will likely be only temporary. Once the robots are in place, their continued upkeep and a large part of their improvement will be automated as well. Humans may have to learn to live with it.

HIGH-TECH UNEMPLOYMENT

This conundrum was first articulated back in the 1940s by the cybernetics pioneer Norbert Wiener, whose work influenced members of the Eisenhower Administration to start worrying about what would come after industrialism. By 1966, the United States convened the first and only sessions of the National Commission on Technology, Automation, and Economic Progress, which published six (mostly ignored) volumes sizing up what would later be termed the "post-industrial economy."

Today, it’s MIT’s Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee who appear to be leading the conversation about technology’s impact on the future of employment—what they call the "great decoupling." Their extensive research shows, beyond reasonable doubt, that technological progress eliminates jobs and leaves average workers worse off than they were before.

Yet it’s hard to see this great decoupling as a mere unintended consequence of digital technology. It is not a paradox but the realization of the industrial drive to remove humans from the value equation. That’s the big news: The growth of an economy does not mean more jobs or prosperity for the people living in it.

"I would like to be wrong," a flummoxed McAfee confided in the same article, "but when all these science-fiction technologies are deployed, what will we need all the people for?"

When technology increases productivity, a company has a new excuse to eliminate jobs and use the savings to reward its shareholders with dividends and stock buybacks. What would've been lost to wages is instead turned back into capital. So the middle class hollows out, and the only ones left making money are those depending on the passive returns from their investments.

It turns out that digital technology merely accelerates this process to the point where we can all see it occurring. It's just that we haven't all taken notice yet—we’ve been busy coding.

"It’s the great paradox of our era," Brynjolfsson explained to MIT Technology Reviewin 2013. "Productivity is at record levels, innovation has never been faster, and yet at the same time, we have a falling median income and we have fewer jobs. People are falling behind because technology is advancing so fast and our skills and organizations aren’t keeping up."

[This post is based on Douglas Rushkoff’s new book, Throwing Rocks at the Google Bus: How Growth Became the Enemy of Prosperity and originally appeared in Fast Company.]
news / VTM / DS / Tijd / LT
Etienne Vermeersch schrijft Nieuwkomersverklaring uit - Federale regering keurt die goed
Edited: 201603311051
Nieuwkomers moeten voortaan een verklaring ondertekenen. Wie weigert, is niet welkom. En wie geen "redelijke inspanning" levert om zich te integreren, kan zijn verblijfsrecht verliezen. Dat schrijven De Standaard en Het Nieuwsblad. Het gaat om een unicum in Europa.

De federale regering keurde woensdag de tekst van de "nieuwkomersverklaring" goed. Elke buitenlander die langer dan drie maanden in België wil verblijven, moet het document ondertekenen. Staatssecretaris voor Asiel en Migratie Theo Francken (N-VA) is zeer blij met de verklaring. Zijn partij pleit al jaren voor de koppeling van een verblijfsrecht aan de wil tot integratie.

Voor EU-burgers, asielzoekers en studenten geldt de integratieverplichting niet. Voor de rest, zowat drie vierde van de nieuwkomers, geldt die wel. Een weigering resulteert in een "onontvankelijk dossier" en wie geen "redelijke inspanning" levert om zich te integreren, kan bij de eerstvolgende verlenging zijn verblijfsrecht verliezen.

Voor de opstelling van de nieuwkomersverklaring deed Francken een beroep op professor Etienne Vermeersch. De Dienst Vreemdelingenzaken neemt de controle op zich. Francken hoopt dat de regeling dit najaar van kracht wordt.

Commentaar LT:
De ondertekening van zo'n tekst door inwijkelingen hadden wij reeds eerder voorgesteld en wel op 24 september 2015. De nieuwe regeling mag als een doorbraak in het debat worden beschouwd en geeft de Dienst Vreeemdelingenzaken een houvast. Op een aantal punten gaat de tekst in tegen de geplogenheden binnen de islamitische gemeenschap. Het ontwerp van Koninklijk Besluit moet nog naar de Raad van State voor een (niet bindend) advies.

Lees ook de verklaring die Saoedi-Arabië u laat ondertekenen wanneer u dat land bezoekt.



beluister hier de toelichting en het commentaar dd. 20160331 van Theo Francken op Radio 1 (De Ochtend)
news
zware terrroristische aanvallen op Zaventem en metrostel tussen Maalbeek en Kunst-Wet: 11 doden en 35 gewonden in Zaventem, 10 doden en onbekend aantal gewonden in Maalbeek, tientallen gewonden - cijfers lopen nog op
Edited: 201603220825
Het openbaar vervoer (metro, treinstations, trams, bussen) ligt stil in de hoofdstad.
Zaventem-Luchthaven is gesloten voor alle luchtverkeer en vliegtuigen worden afgeleid naar Liège, Charleroi, Deurne en Frankfurt.
Er is een zogenaamde 'lock down' afgekondigd, wat wil zeggen dat iedereen gevraagd wordt binnen te blijven. De 'lock down' werd om 16 uur opgeheven.
Het dreigingsniveau is in de voormiddag op 4 gesteld, dat is het maximum.
De zittingen van de rechtbanken zijn opgeschort.
De nationale veiligheidsraad is in crisisberaad.
Makkelijke toegang tot vertrekhall Zaventem ter discussie.
Vandaag, morgen en overmorgen dagen van nationale rouw.
Aanslagen opgeëist door IS/DAESH.
Politie verspreidt foto van mogelijke daders.


Last update: 201603221745
news
Anyone who says Turkey is European country wants EU’s death, says Sarkozy
Edited: 201603202340
"It's not just that. What's the idea behind Europe? Europe is a union of European countries. The question is very simple, even in a geographical sense, is Turkey a European country? Turkey has only one shore of the Bosphorus in Europe. Can Turkey be regarded a European country culturally, historically, and economically speaking? If we say that, we want the European Union's death,” he said.

“From that standpoint, if we talk about Turkey's accession, let me tell you that in many ways Russia is a much more European country than Turkey.”
RT
From Arab Spring to 2016 truce: RT’s timeline of 5-year Syrian war
Edited: 201603170010
news
fusie Ahold - Delhaize goedgekeurd | ceo Frans Muller vangt bonus van 1,5 miljoen euro
Edited: 201603150944
news
Turkije bombardeert PKK in Noord-Irak
Edited: 201603150934
Islamization and Demographic Denialism in France
Edited: 201603141661
by Michel Gurfinkiel
PJ Media
March 14, 2016

Excerpt of an article originally published under the title "Latest Survey Finds 25% of French Teenagers Are Muslims."

One of the most striking cases of reality denial in contemporary France is demography: issues like birthrate, life expectancy, immigration, and emigration. On the face of it, you can hardly ignore such things, since they constantly reshape your environment and your way of life. Even without resorting to statistics, you are bound to perceive, out of day-to-day experience, what the current balance is between younger and older people, how many kids are to be found at an average home, and the ethnicity or religion of your neighbors, or the people you relate to at work or in business.

The French elites, both on the right and left, managed for five decades at least to dismiss the drastic demographic changes that had been taking place in their country, including the rise of Islam, since they clashed with too many political concepts – or fantasies – they had been brainwashed into accepting: the superiority of the "French social model;" the unique assimilative capacity of French society; equality for equality's sake; the primacy of individual values over family values; secularism; francophonie, or the assumption that all French-speaking nations in the world were a mere extension of France, and that all nations that defined themselves as "Francophone" did speak French or were subdued by French culture; and finally la politique arabe et islamique de la France, a supposed political and strategic affinity with the Arab and Muslim world.

Until 2004, compilation of ethnic, racial, and religious statistics was prohibited under French law.

One way for the elites to deny demographics was to reject ethnic-related investigation on legal or ethical grounds. Until 2004, ethnic, racial, and religious statistics were not allowed under French law – ostensibly to prevent a return of Vichy State-style racial persecutions. Even as the law was somehow relaxed, first in 2004 and again in 2007, many statisticians or demographers insisted on retaining a de facto ban on such investigations.

The issue turned into a nasty civil war among demographers, and especially within INED (the French National Institute for Demographic Studies) between a "classic" wing led by older demographers like Henri Léridon and Gérard Calot and then by the younger Michèle Tribalat, and a liberal or radical wing led by Hervé Le Bras.



Michèle Tribalat
In a recent interview with the French weekly Le Point, Tribalat dryly observed that the "well-connected" Le Bras described her as "the National Front Darling," an assertion that "destroyed her professional reputation." The son of a prestigious Catholic historian, Le Bras is indeed a very powerful man in his own right, who managed throughout his own career to accumulate tenures, honors, and positions of influence both in France and abroad.

The irony about his accusation against Tribalat is that, while intent to discuss the issue of immigration, she is an extremely cautious and conservative expert when it comes to actual figures. She has always tended to play down, in particular, the size of the French Muslim community.

In 1997, I observed in an essay for Middle East Quarterly that figures about French Islam were simply chaotic: there was too much discrepancy between sources:

The Ministry of Interior and Ined routinely speak of a Muslim population in France of 3 million. Sheikh Abbas, head of the Great Mosque in Paris, in 1987 spoke of twice as many – 6 million. Journalists usually adopt an estimate somewhere in the middle: for example, Philippe Bernard of Le Monde uses the figure of 3 to 4 million. The Catholic Church, a reliable source of information on religious trends in France, also estimates 4 million. Arabies, a French-Arab journal published in Paris, provides the following breakdown: 3.1 million Muslims of North African origin, 400,000 from the Middle East, 300,000 from Africa, 50,000 Asians, 50,000 converts of ethnic French origin, and 300,000 illegal immigrants from unknown countries. This brings the total to 4.2 million. One can state with reasonable certainty that the Muslim population of France numbers over 3 million (about 5 percent of the total French population) and quite probably over 4 million (6.6 percent).
Nineteen years later, accuracy has hardly improved in this respect. All sources agree that France as a whole underwent a moderate demographic growth: from 57 to 67 million, a 15% increase. (Throughout the same period of time, the U.S. enjoyed a 22% population increase, and China, under a government-enforced one-child policy, a 27% increase.) All sources agree also that there was a much sharper increase in French Muslim demographics – and that, accordingly, the moderate national growth may in fact just reflect the Muslim growth.

For all that, however, there are still no coherent figures about the Muslim community. According to CSA, a pollster that specializes in religious surveys, 6% of the citizens and residents of France identified with Islam in 2012: about 4 million people out of 65 million. IFOP, a leading national pollster, settled for 7% in 2011: 4.5 million. Pew concluded in 2010 a figure of 7.5%: 4.8 million. The CIA World Factbook mentioned 7% to 9% in 2015: from 4.6 to almost 6 million out of 66 million. INED claimed as early as 2009 an 8% figure: 5.1 million. Later, INED and French government sources gave 9% in 2014: 5.8 million.

Over two decades, the French Muslim population is thus supposed to have increased by 25% according to the lowest estimations, by 50% according to median estimations, or even by 100% if one compares the INED and government figures of 1997 to those of 2014, from 3 million to almost 6 million.

This is respectively almost two times, three times, or six times the French average population growth.

An impressive leap forward, whatever the estimation. But even more impressive is, just as was the case in 1997, the discrepancy between the estimates. Clearly, one set of estimates, at least, must be entirely erroneous. And it stands to reason that the lowest estimates are the least reliable.

First, we have a long-term pattern according to which, even within the lowest estimates, the Muslim population increase is accelerating. One explanation is that the previous low estimates were inaccurate.

Second, low estimates tend to focus on the global French population on one hand and on the global French Muslim population on the other hand, and to bypass a generational factor. The younger the population cohorts, the higher the proportion of Muslims. This is reflected in colloquial French by the widespread metonymical substitution of the word "jeune" (youth) for "jeune issu de l'immigration" (immigrant youth), or "jeune issu de la diversité" (non-European or non-Caucasian youth).

According to the first ethnic-related surveys released in early 2010, fully a fifth of French citizens or residents under twenty-four were Muslims.

Proportions were even higher in some places: 50% of the youth were estimated to be Muslim in the département (county) of Seine-Saint-Denis in the northern suburbs of Paris, or in the Lille conurbation in Northern France. A more recent survey validates these numbers.

Once proven wrong, deniers do not make amends. They move straight from fantasy to surrender.

An investigation of the French youths' religious beliefs was conducted last spring by Ipsos. It surveyed nine thousand high school pupils in their teens on behalf of the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) and Sciences Po Grenoble.

The data was released on February 4, 2016, by L'Obs, France's leading liberal newsmagazine. Here are its findings:

38.8% of French youths do not identify with a religion.
33.2% describe themselves as Christian.
25.5% call themselves Muslim.
1.6% identify as Jewish.
Only 40% of the young non-Muslim believers (and 22% of the Catholics) describe religion as "something important or very important."
But 83% of young Muslims agree with that statement.
Such figures should deal the death blow to demographic deniers. Except that once proven wrong, deniers do not make amends. Rather, they contend that since there is after all a demographic, ethnic, and religious revolution, it should be welcomed as a good and positive thing. Straight from fantasy to surrender.

Michel Gurfinkiel, a Shillman-Ginsburg Fellow at the Middle East Forum, is the founder and president of the Jean-Jacques Rousseau Institute, a conservative think tank in France.
news
Turkije legt sociale media (Twitter, Facebook) lam na aanslag met 37 doden in Ankara
Edited: 201603132228

Appeasementpolitiek wordt in het algemeen gebruikt om te verwijzen naar het diplomatieke beleid gericht op het vermijden van oorlog door concessies te doen aan een andere macht. Historicus Paul Kennedy omschrijft het als "het beleid tot het oplossen van internationale ruzies door het accepteren en te voldoen aan grieven van een andere partij door middel van rationele onderhandelingen en compromissen, waardoor een gewapend conflict vermeden kan worden dat mogelijk duur, bloederig en gevaarlijk zou kunnen zijn."
Welke definitie Paul Kennedy aan de huidige onderhandelingen tussen Turkije en de EU zou geven, is niet bekend maar het woord 'rationeel' zou wellicht niet vallen.
Zaman Newspaper
5 maart 2016: AKP: ban Darwin en Freud uit het onderwijs
Edited: 201603050334


Noot LT 20160313: hieronder stond een link naar www.todayszaman.com; deze werkt niet meer vanaf vandaag; de Turkse regering heeft de server dus geconfisceerd; nu is die website in het Turks en bevat blijkbaar propaganda voor Erdogan.

news
5 maart 2016: Erdogan legt oppositiekrant Zaman het zwijgen op
Edited: 201603050143


direct link naar Engelstalige Zaman website

Zaman heeft ook een Nederlandstalige website: Zaman Vandaag

Hieronder de Grondwet van Turkije. Vooral de artikels 19, 26 en 28 zijn van belang voor de vrijheid van de pers. De restricties van die vrijheid en de uitzonderingsmaatregelen waarop de uitvoerende macht een beroep kan doen zijn zeer uitgebreid en laten dus ruimte voor een fikse interpretatie (lees: beknotting). Op die manier kan bvb. berichtgeving over het Koerdische probleem leiden tot represailles omdat de interne veiligheid van de staat in gevaar wordt gebracht. Kritiek op militaire interventies in het buitenland kan dan weer uitgelegd worden als een aantasting van de externe veiligheid. Kritiek op de president (i.c. Erdogan) kan beteugeld worden door een beroep te doen op één of meerdere uitzonderingsclausules.

RT news
NY women fight ‘tampon tax’ in court, accuse state of discrimination
Edited: 201603050013
In Frankrijk haalden de vrouwen in december 2015 hun slag thuis met een taksverlaging. zie ons bericht van 13/12
RT news
Sergey Lavrov beroept zich op de geschiedenis en pleit voor Eurasian Economic Union
Edited: 201603031314
Western attempts to exclude Russia from shaping European and global affairs have led to countless historical tragedies over the centuries, according to Russia’s foreign minister, who added lasting stability can only be reached through cooperation.

In an article for the Russia in Global Affairs magazine, Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov outlines the historical importance of Russian foreign policy over the course of the last 1,000 years, arguing that Russian policy has always been based on preserving the fragile balance of peace and stability in international relations. Any attempts to isolate Moscow as a major world power have led to historical defeats and countless deaths, he says.

“During at least the past two centuries any attempts to unite Europe without Russia and against it have inevitably led to grim tragedies, the consequences of which were always overcome with the decisive participation of our country,” Lavrov wrote.

Being the largest country on earth with a unique “cultural matrix,” Russia has always followed its own national interests, Lavrov argues. Yet at the same time it has served as a bridge between the East and the West, while Russians have always welcomed and respected numerous religions and cultures.

While welcoming Western ideas and applying them to modernize Russia, Moscow has never allowed itself to be consumed by Western culture. At the same time Moscow has always advocated working with the West to achieve common objectives.

Lavrov stressed the constructive role Moscow has played in European affairs, especially during the Napoleonic Wars, as well as in First and Second World Wars. The influence of the Soviet Union in shaping modern Western values should also not be underestimated, the minister argues, highlighting the USSR’s role in decolonization and shaping the European socio-economic system.

“The Soviet Union, for all its evils, never aimed to destroy entire nations,” Lavrov said. “Winston Churchill, who all his life was a principled opponent of the Soviet Union and played a major role in going from the World War II alliance to a new confrontation with the Soviet Union, said that graciousness, i.e. life in accordance with conscience, is the Russian way of doing things,” he added.

The post-Soviet world, Lavrov argues, offered the unique opportunity for European states to unite with Moscow and work towards a wider and more solid security mechanism in Europe – a mechanism that would enable long-lasting peace on the wider continent.

“Logically, we should have created a new foundation for European security by strengthening the military and political components of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE),” the minister wrote.

Instead of uniting, some European countries chose to ally themselves with NATO and Washington, and once again embarked on the centuries-old matrix of trying to isolate Russia and expand the military alliance’s borders further east, while pursuing a global agenda of regime change and ‘color’ revolutions.

“It is notable that George Kennan, the architect of the US policy of containment of the Soviet Union, said that the ratification of NATO expansion was ‘a tragic mistake,’” Lavrov said.

Rather than serving as architects of peace, NATO and its member states, Lavrov said, continued to engage in destructive policies that threaten international stability and have already led to the collapse of states, starting from the bombings of Yugoslavia, to the invasions of Iraq and Libya.

Arguing that the liberal system of globalization has failed, the minister stressed that the world is standing at crossroads, where a new system of international relations is taking shape. At such an important historical junction, Lavrov says it is wrong to accuse Russia of “revisionism” just because Moscow refuses to bow or close its eyes to NATO’s policies.

“A reliable solution to the problems of the modern world can only be achieved through serious and honest cooperation between the leading states and their associations in order to address common challenges,” Lavrov wrote.

The most pressing issue in the modern world is the threat of terrorism, which can only be defeated by a united front, he added.

The foreign minister stressed that Russia is not seeking any “confrontation” with the US or the EU. On the contrary, Moscow is and has always been open to “the widest possible cooperation with its Western partners.”

Russia continues to support the notion that the best way to ensure the interests of Europeans would be “to form a common economic and humanitarian space from the Atlantic to the Pacific, so that the newly formed Eurasian Economic Union could be an integrating link between Europe and Asia Pacific.”


biography Sergey Lavrov
CAR/Rt news
CAR onderzoekt leveringen van componenten voor bommen aan ISIS/DAESH
Edited: 201602251309
Over 50 companies from 20 countries, including Turkey, US, the Netherlands and Belgium (Solvay), have produced, sold or received hundreds of components, such as detonators, cables and wires, used by Islamic State terrorists to build improvised explosive devices (IEDs), a major study has found.

Islamic State (IS, formerly ISIS/ISIL) militants have manufactured and deployed IEDs across the battlefield on a "quasi-industrial scale," Conflict Armament Research (CAR), which undertook the 20-month study, stated in the report. Made of cheap and readily available components, IEDs appear to have become IS’s "signature weapon," the European Union-mandated study has found.

full report CAR
news
Algerijns journalist en schrijver Daoud trekt zich terug uit islam-debat
Edited: 201602250117
De Algerijn Kamel Daoud (45) trekt zich terug uit het publieke debat. De schrijver is beticht van „islamofobie” en „koloniaal paternalisme”.

Hij had o.m. geschreven: "met de instroom van migranten uit het Midden-Oosten en Afrika, doet de pathologische relatie van sommige Arabische landen met vrouwen zijn intree (sic, LT) in Europa".

lees het volledige bericht in NRC

lees het bericht in le Quotidien d'Oran

lire l'article osé de Kamel Daoud dans Le Monde 31/1/2016


lire la lettre ouverte des 'scientifiques' dans Le Monde du 11 février 2016
Et voici les noms de ces 'scientifiques': Noureddine Amara (historien), Joel Beinin (historien), Houda Ben Hamouda (historienne), Benoît Challand (sociologue), Jocelyne Dakhlia (historienne), Sonia Dayan-Herzbrun (sociologue), Muriam Haleh Davis (historienne), Giulia Fabbiano (anthropologue), Darcie Fontaine (historienne), David Theo Goldberg (philosophe), Ghassan Hage (anthropologue), Laleh Khalili (anthropologue), Tristan Leperlier (sociologue), Nadia Marzouki (politiste), Pascal Ménoret (anthropologue), Stéphanie Pouessel (anthropologue), Elizabeth Shakman Hurd (politiste), Thomas Serres (politiste), Seif Soudani (journaliste).


lire la réponse de Kamel Daoud dans Le Monde du 20 février 2016

Commentaar LT: Kamel Daoud neemt de vrijheid om het onderdrukkende element van de islam aan te klagen. Hij maakt gebruik van de vrijheid van meningsuiting. Hij wil vrij zijn. Dat zegt en schrijft hij ook uitdrukkelijk en met verve. Hij spreekt vanuit zijn eigen ervaring, zijn doorleefd verlangen naar een leven met zin, een zinvol leven waarin hij eigen accenten mag leggen. Je kan niet zeggen dat deze man het zichzelf gemakkelijk heeft gemaakt. Dat is nu eenmaal het lot van zij die vrij willen zijn en er ook iets aan doen. Dat hij daarmee tegen de kar rijdt van diegenen die geen enkele ingenomen egelstelling willen verlaten, is normaal.
Er is een schrijnende parallel met het zwijgen van Albert Camus. Camus plooide voor de haatcampagne van Sartre en De Beauvoir (Les Mandarins de Paris) en trok zich terug in Lourmarin.
Zoals bij Camus zit ook hier weer waarschijnlijk veel jaloezie in het spel: te vlug een ster-auteur, teveel media-aandacht, teveel prijzen, te bekend. Dan slaat het academisch gespuis vanuit de ivoren toren terug met bakken pseudo-wetenschappelijk gewauwel. Dat er een diepe kloof bestaat tussen een vrouw-onderdrukkende islam en een gelaïsciseerd Westen, is zonder meer waar. Wie dat ontkent maakt zichzelf wat wijs, maar erger ... wordt medeplichtig aan de onderdrukking. Er is een kafkaiaanse toestand ontstaan rond het begrip 'progressief'. De gelijkheid tussen man en vrouw erkennen en propageren, dat noem ik progressief vooruit-gaan. Gisteren (en vandaag) was het nodig de rooms katholieke kerk daarover aan te pakken, waarom zouden we dan onze mond houden als de islam in hetzelfde bed ziek is?
Het is mogelijk dat mijn mening niet de uwe is, maar weet dat ik de uwe respecteer zelfs al vergist u zich.



RT news
Duitse politie gaat Trojan virus gebruiken om verdachten te volgen
Edited: 201602230144
The German Interior Ministry has approved a measure allowing federal police to use a special Trojan virus to hack the computers and smartphones of their suspects, giving them almost unlimited opportunities to conduct surveillance on them.

read more
RT News
Lagarde (IMF) wil dat de multinationals en de rijken belastingen betalen: We need a tax system where multinational companies & wealthy individuals contribute a fair share to the public purse
Edited: 201602221653
Christine Lagarde, head of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), has called for a revolutionary “Robin Hood” tax system in which multinational companies and wealthy individuals actually pay a fair share of tax.

Commentaar LT: als de vos de passie preekt, boer let op uw kippen. Over een supertax kan je veel praten, je moet er ook nog wel iets aan doen. Dit klinkt als: 'Kijk, ik Christine Lagarde, ik ben mee met mijn tijd.' De brave vrouw meent het misschien goed maar ze heeft terzake geen bevoegdheid. Gratuit, dus. En diegenen die wel de bevoegdheid hebben, vertikken het gewoon.
Voor de multinationals is de oplossing toch zo klaar als pompwater: maak één (1) Europees loket voor hun belastingaangifte, dan kunnen ze niet op 28 plaatsen gaan 'shoppen'.

oordeel zelf: lees hier de speech van Christine Lagarde
RT news
Oekraïne kiest liedje over Krim-deportaties onder Stalin voor deelname aan Eurosong
Edited: 201602221250
Ukraine is apparently courting trouble by choosing a song with politically loaded lyrics for the upcoming Eurovision contest, which explicitly bans participants from using the event for promoting any political agenda.
The song by Jamala called “1944” is dedicated to the deportation of Crimean Tatars by Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin. The singer was born into a mixed Tatar Armenian family and was inspired to write the lyrics by her grandmother’s account of those tragic events, she told the media. A record number of over 300,000 Ukrainians voted in the national selection for the contest.

RT maakt enkele interessante vergelijkingen

zie ook de geschiedenis van het Stalinisme
news
Syrië: in Homs en Damascus 140 doden bij bomaanslagen IS/DAESH
Edited: 201602211801
RT news
Rusland stationeert high-tech MIG-29-toestellen op basis Erebuni in Armenië
Edited: 201602201118
De Erebuni-basis ligt slechts 20 km van de Turkse grens, waar de berg Ararat ligt. Armenië heeft wegens de genocide een historische wrok tegen Turkije en werkt wat graag mee aan de Russische druk op het land.

news
Vlaamse regering geeft Essers toelating om 11 ha geklasseerd bos te kappen
Edited: 201602201056
Schauvliege mocht het nieuws aan de pers melden. Zonder enige schaamte, gewoon ranzig. Er zijn geen woorden voor ...
DS
aantal erkende asbestslachtoffers piekt van 181 in 2014 naar 292 in 2015
Edited: 201602191403
Op de website van het Asbestfonds moet u deze informatie niet gaan zoeken. Het laatste nieuwsbericht aldaar dateert van 28 maart 2012 (!).

Wij hebben het AFA op 20160219 volgend bericht gezonden:
Geachte,

De jaarcijfers 2015 van het Asbestfonds werden vandaag besproken in De Standaard.
Tot mijn verwondering is het laatste nieuwsbericht (persbericht) op uw website dat van 28 maart 2012 (!).
Heeft de wetgever u geen verplichting opgelegd tot jaarlijkse rapportering?

Graag enige verduidelijking.

Met hoogachting,
LT

Op 20160222 kregen wij volgend antwoord van de Communicatieverantwoordelijke van het Fonds voor de beroepsziekten (FBZ):
"Geacte heer Tessens,

We publiceren jaarlijks enkele cijfers over het Asbestfonds (AFA) in het jaarverslag van het Fonds voor de beroepsziekten (FBZ). Het AFA behoort immers tot het FBZ.
U vind deze jaarverslagen hier:
jaarverslagen
Daarnaast publiceren we op regelmatige basis ook een nieuwsbrief met meer informatie over het Asbestfonds.
De afgelopen twee jaren was er onder meer informatie te vinden over het AFA in de nieuwsbrieven 34, 35, 38 en 44. U kan deze hier vinden:
nieuwsbrieven

Zoals u ziet, staat al deze informatie op de website van het FBZ en niet op deze van het AFA. We begrijpen dat dit vreemd kan lijken.
Uw vraag is dus terecht. We gaan proberen dat hier op te lossen.
Ondertussen adviseer ik te kijken op de bovenvermelde pagina's.
Met vriendelijke groeten,
Alexander Van de Sande
Communicatieverantwoordelijke
Fonds voor de beroepsziekten
Sterrenkundelaan 1 - B-1210 Brussel
Tel : +32 (0)2 - 226 67 27
Gsm: +32 (0)485 - 58 73 96"

Er is dus beterschap in de maak.

Toch nog een inhoudelijke bemerking:
De wet bepaalt (...) dat een vergoeding door het Asbestfonds het slachtoffer de mogelijkheid ontneemt een vordering voor de rechtbank in te stellen tegen de aansprakelijke derde (bijvoorbeeld de werkgever), behalve wanneer deze de ziekte opzettelijk heeft veroorzaakt.
Commentaar LT: De verantwoordelijkheid van de werkgever (bvb. Eternit) wordt hierdoor dus afgewenteld op de gemeenschap en dat volgens het adagium 'privatisering van de baten, collectivisering van de lasten'. De vergoeding die het Asbestfonds uitkeert staat in feite gelijk met een ordinaire afkoopsom. Rest de vraag of deze regeling de toets aan art. 1382 BW doorstaat.


website Asbestfonds

RT News
17 februari 2016: Erdogan sluiswachter. Vluchtelingenstroom als pressiemiddel op EU om steun aan Koerden te fnuiken.
Edited: 201602172245
Western countries have no chance of stopping the influx of refugees from Syria, Turkish President Erdogan said. He also pledged to continue shelling Syrian Kurds and criticized the West for supporting Kurdish organizations.

LT: de verbrokkelde EU heeft weinig weerwerk tegen een Turkije dat een sluis is geworden tussen het kruitvat van het Midden-Oosten en de Europese Unie. Dat de vluchtelingen via het verarmde Griekenland gedumpt worden, is voor sluiswachter Erdogan mooi meegenomen.
news
17 februari 2016: Turkije: Ankara: minstens 28 doden en 61 gewonden bij aanslag nabij parlement
Edited: 201602171650
At least 28 people have been killed nad 61 injured in a car explosion in Ankara, Turkey's Deputy Prime Minister said. The blast happened in close proximity to the Turkish parliament building, and reportedly targeted military personnel.
Update 201602181014: Turkse overheid legt de verantwoordelijkheid bij de Koerden, die op hun beurt richting ISIS/DAESH wijzen.
Update 201602192054: Een Koerdische groep (TAK) heeft dan toch de aanslag opgeëist.
news
Hongarije zoekt toenadering tot Rusland. Orban en Poetin in Moskou. Gas en kerncentrales op het menu.
Edited: 201602171522
RT News
WikiLeaks lekt recent rapport over vluchtelingencrisis en mogelijke EU-interventie in Lybië
Edited: 201602171502
WikiLeaks has released a classified report detailing the EU's military operations against refugee flows in Europe. It also outlines a plan to develop a "reliable" government in Libya which will, in turn, allow EU operations to expand in the area.
The leaked report, dated January 29, 2016, is written by the operation's commander, Rear Admiral Enrico Credendino of the Italian Navy, for the European Union Military Committee and the Political and Security Committee of the EU.

The document gives refugee flow statistics and details of performed and planned operation phases of the joint EU forces operating in the Mediterranean.

zie ook het eerdere bericht waarin de Lybische regering een directe interventie afwijst

Vooral Frankrijk houdt zijn ogen gericht op de Lybische overbuur en de steun van een Italiaanse admiraal komt dan ook niet ongelegen.
Benieuwd of Bernard-Henri Lévy ook nu weer een rol gaat spelen zoals in 2011.
RT News
16 februari 2016: Artillerie Turkije tegen Koerden in Noord-Syrië. Veiligheidsraad en USA verveeld met taktiek Erdogan.
Edited: 201602162353
Following a briefing requested by Russia, the UN Security Council has urged Turkey to comply with international law in Syria. The closed-door meeting was called to discuss recent Turkish shelling of Kurdish YPG militia targets in Syria's north.
news
De staalbetoging tegen China in Brussel: eerst delocaliseren, dan janken
Edited: 201602161616
De betoging van de staalindustrie tegen China werd gisteren in het VRT-journaal voorgesteld als een unicum: werkgevers en vakbonden trekken aan hetzelfde zeel. Misschien toch even nuanceren: CEO's en kaderleden zijn ook maar loontrekkenden, werknemers dus.

De EIGENAARS van de bedrijven hebben grote stukken van de staalindustrie gedelocaliseerd richting het Verre Oosten. De CEO's die dat voor mekaar brachten waren toen de gewillige huurlingen van de 'global players' die geen werknemers kennen, enkel winstcijfers.

De pedalen kwijt op de redactie?


news
Vlaamse begroting: een tekort van 'slechts' 407.000.000 euro. PR-truukjes om een fiasco om te buigen tot een meevaller.
Edited: 201602161523
De PR-truuk is ondertussen al te doorzichtig en zo oud als de straat: je zegt eerst dat je een tekort van 1 miljard verwacht en als het dan minder is dan spreek je van een meevaller.
Het is een taaltje dat ook beursanalisten veelvuldig hanteren: "het verlies is kleiner dan verwacht".
En nog een oud truukje: "goed nieuws: de groei van het deficit vertraagt".
RT News
15 februari 2016: Erdogan uses ISIS to suppress Kurds, West stays silent says Turkish MP Selma Irmak
Edited: 201602151910
“Erdogan uses ISIS [Islamic State/IS, also known as ISIS/ISIL] against the Kurds. He can’t send the Turkish Army directly to Syrian Kurdistan, but he can use ISIS as an instrument against the Kurds. He has a greater Ottoman Empire in his mind, that’s his dream, while ISIS is one of the instruments [to achieve it],” Selma Irmak, a Turkish MP from the Peace and Democracy Party told RIA Novosti on Monday.

(...)

“Unfortunately, the international community is indifferent towards these events. Turkey has taken Europe prisoner by using Middle Eastern refugees as an instrument of blackmail. The US keeps silent too, having common interests with Turkey. For instance, the US wants to keep using the Incirlik airbase […] and the Turkish Army is emboldened by such impunity.”
RT News
Hoofdkwartier HSBC blijft dan toch in London. Verhuis naar Hong Kong gaat niet door.
Edited: 201602151431
Of het allemaal een spelletje is geweest om de Britse regering onder druk te zetten, zal later wel blijken ...
Volgens de top van de bank zijn er geen onderhandelingen met de regering Cameron geweest.
RT News
Golfstaten in gesprek met Israël?
Edited: 201602151422
'Persian Gulf states are seeking nuclear weapons to counter “bad guy” Iran and have held clandestine meetings with Israel despite not having official ties with Tel Aviv, Defense Minister Moshe Ya’alon revealed at the Munich Security Conference in Germany.'

Dat meldt RT.
RT News
Iran exporteert olie naar Europa na opheffing sancties
Edited: 201602141439
“In the coming 24 hours, 4 million barrels of crude oil will be loaded onto 3 tankers destined for Europe,” Rokneddin Javadi, managing director of the National Iranian Oil Company, was quoted as saying by the Shana news agency.

“Of those 4 million barrels of crude, 2 million barrels are assigned to France’s Total, and 2 million barrels have been bought by two companies in Russia and Spain,” he added.

Iran has signed a deal with French oil giant Total for daily export of 160,000 to 180,000 barrels of oil per day, according to the IRNA.
news
Platenfirma PIAS neemt intrek in gebouw Le Peuple, in 1932 ontworpen door de architecten Brunfaut
Edited: 201602131016
PIAS huurt het modernistische gebouw. Mooi zo !
news
The Independent verdwijnt op 26 maart als gedrukte krant; gaat digitaal verder
Edited: 201602131010
In 2010 kocht de Russische zakenman (en ex-KGB-agent) de krant op.
RT News
200 million women victims of genital mutilation in 30 countries, cut before age of 5, UN says
Edited: 201602051301
A new UNICEF report says at least 200 million women and girls have suffered the terrible practice of genital mutilation in 30 countries across the world. In some countries the procedure is practically universal.
Of these 200 million “more than half live in just three countries: Indonesia, Egypt and Ethiopia” while 44 million “are girls below age 15,” the report says, adding, “the exact number of girls and women worldwide who have undergone FGM [Female Genital Mutilation] remains unknown”.
RT News
Women in Saudi Arabia: no coffee at Starbucks
Edited: 201602051253
Women in Riyadh have been banned from local Starbucks after a barrier designed to keep the genders apart collapsed. The company suggested female customers send their drivers to pick up drinks.
The coffee shop now has a sign in Arabic and English: “Please no entry for ladies only. Send your driver to order. Thank you.”
A woman tweeted the warning, saying “Starbucks store in Riyadh refused to serve me just because I’m a woman and asked me to send a man instead.”
Female segregation is enshrined in Saudi Arabian law. Women are required the approval of a male to leave the house. Last December, women in Saudi Arabia were given the right to vote in local elections, but they are still forbidden to drive.
news
De Belgische postgroep Bpost neemt netwerk van 220 krantenwinkels (Press Shop) + mediaverdeler AMP over van het Franse Lagardère.
Edited: 201602050820



COMMUNIQUÉ DE PRESSE LAGARDERE
Paris, le 5 février 2016
Cession par Lagardère Travel Retail de ses activités de distribution de presse en Belgique
Lagardère Travel Retail poursuit son désengagement de l'activité de distribution de presse et de retail intégré, et annonce la signature d'un accord en vue de la cession de sa filiale de distribution belge au groupe bpost.
Cette opération constitue une nouvelle étape de la stratégie annoncée visant à se concentrer sur les activités en croissance du Travel Retail.
Cet accord permettra à bpost de poursuivre sa stratégie de croissance, basée notamment sur la diversification avec de nouvelles activités, dans le secteur du commerce de détail de proximité et de commodité.

Les réseaux actuels de bpost et de Lagardère Travel Retail garderont leurs spécificités et leurs gammes de produits. Un accord de franchise pour la distribution et l'exploitation des marques du Groupe Lagardère (Relay, Hubiz, So Coffee...) en Belgique sera également conclu entre les deux parties concernées.

Les activités concernées par ce projet de cession ont représenté en 2014 un chiffre d'affaires consolidé d'environ 440 M€.
La finalisation de cette cession est subordonnée principalement à l'obtention de l'accord des autorités de la concurrence.


À PROPOS DE LAGARDÈRE TRAVEL RETAIL :
Lagardère Travel Retail, une des quatre branches du Groupe Lagardère, est un leader global du travel retail Lagardère Travel Retail exploite 4 300 points de vente, en Travel Essentials, Duty Free et Restauration, dans les aéroports, gares et autres concessions, dans plus de 30 pays. Lagardère Travel Retail génère un chiffre d'affaires de 3,6 milliards d'euros (1).
Lagardère Travel Retail a une approche globale unique, qui vise à surpasser les attentes des voyageurs durant tout leur voyage et à optimiser les actifs des concédants et des marques partenaires.
(1) Ventes consolidées à 100% - Vision 2014 Pro-forma incluant les ventes de Gerzon, d'Airest et de Paradies de l'année fiscale 2014.
news
museum KMSKB: verwaarlozing, waterschade en politieke onwil
Edited: 201602031207
de schaamte voorbij ...
news
USA: voorverkiezing Iowa brengt geen klaarheid
Edited: 201602031149
Hilary Clinton, D, 49,8 %
Bernie Sanders, D, 49,6 %

Ted Cruz, R, 27,7 %
Donald Trump, R, 24,3 %
Marco Rubio, R, 23,1 %
Jeb Bush, R, 2,8 %
news
Iraanse president Hassan Rouhani bezoekt Rome: naaktbeelden bedekt
Edited: 201601280421
Europa gaat cultureel door de knieën voor het lieve geld. Walgelijk.
RT
Libië: Tobroek wil niet samen in één regering met Tripoli
Edited: 201601260021
De afwijzende houding van het parlement in Tobroek geeft ISIS/DAESH wind in de zeilen.

meer info ...
news
schaakspel verboden in Saoedi Arabië
Edited: 201601220007
The game of chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money. It causes enmity and hatred between people,” Abdulaziz Bin Abdullah, the most powerful Sunni cleric in Saudi Arabia, said on his weekly call-in show.


Voor diegenen die niet vertrouwd zijn met het schaakspel: een simpele pion kan de koning schaakmat zetten ! De koningin is het machtigste stuk op het schaakbord. Dat is natuurlijk geen leuke gedachte in een monarchale dictatuur.
RT News
Israël promoot Koerdische staat
Edited: 201601200959
Israeli Justice Minister Ayelet Shaked has spoken out in favor of an independent Kurdish state. She also urged increased cooperation between Israel and the Kurdish people. Shaked sees this as an opportunity to weaken Israel’s rivals in the region.
“We must openly call for the establishment of a Kurdish state that separates Iran from Turkey, one which will be friendly towards Israel,” Shaked told the annual INSS security conference in Tel Aviv on Tuesday, as cited by the Times of Israel.
More precisely, Shaked proposed the new state be founded between Turkey, Israel and Iraq.

lees meer over dit plan
SEJNOWSKI Terry, BARTOL Tom
Memory capacity of brain is 10 times more than previously thought - Data from the Salk Institute shows brain’s memory capacity is in the petabyte range, as much as entire Web
Edited: 201601200915
LA JOLLA—Salk researchers and collaborators have achieved critical insight into the size of neural connections, putting the memory capacity of the brain far higher than common estimates. The new work also answers a longstanding question as to how the brain is so energy efficient and could help engineers build computers that are incredibly powerful but also conserve energy.

“This is a real bombshell in the field of neuroscience,” says Terry Sejnowski, Salk professor and co-senior author of the paper, which was published in eLife. “We discovered the key to unlocking the design principle for how hippocampal neurons function with low energy but high computation power. Our new measurements of the brain’s memory capacity increase conservative estimates by a factor of 10 to at least a petabyte, in the same ballpark as the World Wide Web.”

Our memories and thoughts are the result of patterns of electrical and chemical activity in the brain. A key part of the activity happens when branches of neurons, much like electrical wire, interact at certain junctions, known as synapses. An output ‘wire’ (an axon) from one neuron connects to an input ‘wire’ (a dendrite) of a second neuron. Signals travel across the synapse as chemicals called neurotransmitters to tell the receiving neuron whether to convey an electrical signal to other neurons. Each neuron can have thousands of these synapses with thousands of other neurons.
“When we first reconstructed every dendrite, axon, glial process, and synapse from a volume of hippocampus the size of a single red blood cell, we were somewhat bewildered by the complexity and diversity amongst the synapses,” says Kristen Harris, co-senior author of the work and professor of neuroscience at the University of Texas, Austin. “While I had hoped to learn fundamental principles about how the brain is organized from these detailed reconstructions, I have been truly amazed at the precision obtained in the analyses of this report.”

Synapses are still a mystery, though their dysfunction can cause a range of neurological diseases. Larger synapses—with more surface area and vesicles of neurotransmitters—are stronger, making them more likely to activate their surrounding neurons than medium or small synapses.

The Salk team, while building a 3D reconstruction of rat hippocampus tissue (the memory center of the brain), noticed something unusual. In some cases, a single axon from one neuron formed two synapses reaching out to a single dendrite of a second neuron, signifying that the first neuron seemed to be sending a duplicate message to the receiving neuron.

At first, the researchers didn’t think much of this duplicity, which occurs about 10 percent of the time in the hippocampus. But Tom Bartol, a Salk staff scientist, had an idea: if they could measure the difference between two very similar synapses such as these, they might glean insight into synaptic sizes, which so far had only been classified in the field as small, medium and large.
To do this, researchers used advanced microscopy and computational algorithms they had developed to image rat brains and reconstruct the connectivity, shapes, volumes and surface area of the brain tissue down to a nanomolecular level.

The scientists expected the synapses would be roughly similar in size, but were surprised to discover the synapses were nearly identical.

“We were amazed to find that the difference in the sizes of the pairs of synapses were very small, on average, only about eight percent different in size. No one thought it would be such a small difference. This was a curveball from nature,” says Bartol.

Because the memory capacity of neurons is dependent upon synapse size, this eight percent difference turned out to be a key number the team could then plug into their algorithmic models of the brain to measure how much information could potentially be stored in synaptic connections.

It was known before that the range in sizes between the smallest and largest synapses was a factor of 60 and that most are small.

But armed with the knowledge that synapses of all sizes could vary in increments as little as eight percent between sizes within a factor of 60, the team determined there could be about 26 categories of sizes of synapses, rather than just a few.

“Our data suggests there are 10 times more discrete sizes of synapses than previously thought,” says Bartol. In computer terms, 26 sizes of synapses correspond to about 4.7 “bits” of information. Previously, it was thought that the brain was capable of just one to two bits for short and long memory storage in the hippocampus.

“This is roughly an order of magnitude of precision more than anyone has ever imagined,” says Sejnowski.

What makes this precision puzzling is that hippocampal synapses are notoriously unreliable. When a signal travels from one neuron to another, it typically activates that second neuron only 10 to 20 percent of the time.

“We had often wondered how the remarkable precision of the brain can come out of such unreliable synapses,” says Bartol. One answer, it seems, is in the constant adjustment of synapses, averaging out their success and failure rates over time. The team used their new data and a statistical model to find out how many signals it would take a pair of synapses to get to that eight percent difference.

The researchers calculated that for the smallest synapses, about 1,500 events cause a change in their size/ability (20 minutes) and for the largest synapses, only a couple hundred signaling events (1 to 2 minutes) cause a change.

“This means that every 2 or 20 minutes, your synapses are going up or down to the next size. The synapses are adjusting themselves according to the signals they receive,” says Bartol.

link to Salk Institute




half a brain ...
news
ook gesjoemel in het tennis: gokmaffia en matchfixing
Edited: 201601191739
RT News & Amnesty International & The Guardian
Apple, Microsoft allegedly use cobalt sourced from child labor in DR Congo – Amnesty
Edited: 201601191136


Amnesty believes the issue is that none of these companies can actually verify where the cobalt comes from. But “around half of all cobalt comes from the DRC, and no company can validly claim that they are unaware of the human rights and child labor abuses linked with mineral extraction in the region,” business and human rights researcher at Amnesty International, Mark Dummett, told the Guardian.

find out more
news
Sjoemelsoftware: ook Opel in de fout
Edited: 201601191127
news
Al-Qaeda branch threatens to ‘recover’ Spanish exclaves in Africa
Edited: 201601160346
One of the leaders of Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb (AQIM) has called for the “recapture” of the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla, located on the border with Morocco.
news
aanslag IS/DAESH in Jakarta/Indonesië
Edited: 201601141715
Bij de aanslagen kwamen zeven mensen om, waaronder de vijf aanvallers en twee politieagenten. Islamitische Staat heeft de verantwoordelijkheid voor de aanslagen opgeëist.
Indonesië telt 255 miljoen inwoners en 86% is moslim.



news
energieminister Marghem blundert opnieuw: dient oude tekst over nucleaire bijdrage Electrabel in bij de Kamer
Edited: 201601131310
Arrogantie, incompetentie en vriendjespolitiek ... het gaat vaak samen.
News
BEL: MR wil als enige partij 'Mein Kampf' laten verbieden.
Edited: 201601131253
Beter onderwijs en een leescultuur bevorderen zouden positievere signalen zijn van een partij die enkel met zichzelf bezig is.

zie ook onze nota over de heruitgave door Fayard
news
Nieuwe CEO voor VRT: Paul Lembrechts
Edited: 201601091432
Directeuren(-generaal) NIR
1930 - 1937: Gust De Muynck (Antwerpen, 5 december 1897 - Hoeilaart, 1986), leeftijd bij aantreden: 33 jaar
1937 - 1939: Theo De Ronde (Ekeren (Antwerpen), 1894 - Leuven, 1939), leeftijd bij aantreden: 43 jaar
1939 - 1960: Jan Boon (Halle, 6 januari 1898 – Ukkel, 31 december 1960), leeftijd bij aantreden: 41 jaar
Administrateurs-generaal BRT/BRTN
1960 - 1986: Paul Vandenbussche (Jette, 9 augustus 1921 - Leuven, 28 mei 2011), leeftijd bij aantreden: 39 jaar
1986 - 1996: Cas Goossens (Itegem, 13 augustus 1937), leeftijd bij aantreden: 49 jaar
Gedelegeerd bestuurders VRT (Aangevuld op 20160418)
1996 - 2002: Bert De Graeve (Avelgem, 24 maart 1955), leeftijd bij aantreden: 41 jaar
2002 - 2006: Tony Mary (Dilbeek, 1950), leeftijd bij aantreden: 52 jaar
2006 - 2007: Piet Van Roe (ad interim) (Antwerpen, 2 mei 1939), leeftijd bij aantreden: 67 jaar
2007 - 2009: Dirk Wauters (Blanden, 1955), leeftijd bij aantreden: 52 jaar
2009 - 2010: Piet Van Roe (ad interim), leeftijd bij aantreden: 70 jaar
2010 - 2014: Sandra De Preter (Brugge, 1962), leeftijd bij aantreden: 48 jaar
2014 - 2014: Willy Wijnants (1951)(ad interim wegens ziekte van Sandra De Preter), leeftijd bij aantreden: 63 jaar
20141017 - 20160229: Leo Hellemans (Puurs, 1951), leeftijd bij aantreden: 63 jaar
20160301 - heden: Paul Lembrechts (°1957) studeerde af als dierenarts vooraleer hij daar opleidingen in bedrijfseconomie en marketing aan toevoegde.Na enkele ervaringen op de VRT als omroeper en scenarioschrijver ging hij aan de slag bij Master Foods België, de producent van o.m. Mars, waar hij diverse management- en directiefuncties bekleedde. Hij stapte in 1995 over naar de banksector. Hij oefendediverse directie- en managementfuncties uit bij de Generale Bank (later Fortis Bank), ABN Amro en Beroepskrediet NV/BKCP Bank.

Link naar VRT Jaarverslag 2014 Opvallend is het ontbreken van het complexe organogram van de VRT. En daar ligt nu net het probleem.

leden van de raad van bestuur van de VRT

de tijdlijn van NIR/BRT/BRTN/VRT

news
Mein Kampf heruitgegeven in Duitsland
Edited: 201601081130
Het werk wordt heruitgegeven met een paar duizend voetnoten.
Zie ook onze nota over de heruitgave door Fayard.

Een nederlandstalige uitgave vindt u hier.
News
Noord-Korea test waterstofbom - Ook China keurt dat af
Edited: 201601071148

Infographic: North Korea Has Conducted Its Fourth Nuclear Test | Statista
News
Antwerpen: rederij Flandria stopt na de zomer | onrendabel zegt Studio100
Edited: 201601061714


Hier een herinnering aan Flandria 21.

news
USA: Justice Department dagvaardt Volkswagen
Edited: 201601051202



Het gebruik van sjoemelsoftware kwam in september 2015 aan het licht en CEO Winterkorn trad op 20150923 af.
News
Argentina renews claim on Falkland Islands
Edited: 201601041328


“For decades, the international community has considered the question of Las Malvinas as one of colonialism which must be stopped and has urged Argentina and the United Kingdom to find a peaceful and lasting solution to the sovereignty dispute through bilateral negotiations,” Argentina’s foreign ministry said.
News
Belgium | Kernenergie | Doel 1 stilgevallen enkele dagen na opstart | Duitsland ongerust
Edited: 201601031624
Internationaal slaat België een mal figuur met een welles-nietes-spelletje omtrent de kernuitstap. Wie deelt de lakens uit? Waar is het beleid?


News
Iran | Teheran: ambassade Saudi-Arabia in brand gestoken na executie sjiïet al-Nimr
Edited: 201601030231
Saoedi-Arabië brengt zijn bondgenoot - de USA - in de problemen. Acht het koninkrijk zich beschermd nu het vliegdekschip USS Truman in de Perzische Golf ligt? Het zou een foute gok kunnen zijn.
Minder dan een jaar na zijn aantreden zorgt de 80-jarige koning Salmanvoor een explosieve situatie.
In ieder geval wordt het voor de jonge kroonprins en minister van defensie, Mohammed bin Salman al Saud, een lastig jaar.
Kurdpress News Agency - KNA
Massrour Barzani says Kurds should not lose opportunity to establish state Kurdistan
Edited: 201601022035
Region Chancellor of Security Council Masrour Barzani has issued a message to mark the 2016 New Year, has highlighted the major developments the Middle East and reiterated that Kurds in Iraq should not lose the current opportunity to establish an independent state in the north of Iraq.
In a statement on Thursday, Barzani thanked the people of the Kurdistan Region for remaining strong in the face of a series of crises during the last year, and wished all a peaceful coming year.
All the indications show that political borders in the Middle East will soon be redrawn, reads the statement, and Kurds must not miss this unique opportunity as it may not happen again, BasNews reported.
He reiterated on the role of the Peshmerga forces on the frontlines against Islamic State (IS) and stressed that their sacrifices have created a peaceful atmosphere for people to celebrate the New Year.
“Not only the people of Kurdistan, but the world is now proud of the Peshmerga,” Barzani said.
He urged the international community to provide further immediate support to the Peshmerga forces as “they are fighting on behalf of the globe.”
News
executie sjiïet in SAR - Saoedische elite bedreigd
Edited: 201601021809
Independent
2 januari 2016: Turkey: Erdogan cites 'Hitler's Germany' as example of an effective form of government
Edited: 201601020354
News
Energie: Eandis slorpt 7 intercommunales op
Edited: 201512311300


Op zijn website meldt Eandis:
'Momenteel is er geen privépartner aandeelhouder binnen Eandis. Wel neemt de Vlaamse Regering momenteel de nodige initiatieven om een wettelijk kader te creëren waarbij een privépartner toegelaten is, maar dan buiten de energiesector. De vereenvoudigde structuur na de fusie maakt het makkelijker om een geïnteresseerde partner met vers kapitaal aan boord te halen.'

Commentaar LT: Nergens wordt vermeld waarom de intrede van een privé-partner überhaupt nodig is. Bij de huidige rentestand moet het toch mogelijk zijn middelen te lenen en die te laten renderen tot voorspoed van het algemeen.
News
Dievenstaat Centraal Afrikaanse Republiek (CAR) oncontroleerbaar
Edited: 201512311235
Na het vertrek van de corrupte president François Bozizé begin 2013, namen criminele bendes en krijgsheren de macht over. Etnisch en religieus geweld werd hun strategie, goud en diamant hun brandstof.

Het Belgisch ministerie van BuZ beschrijft de situatie als volgt:
De Centraal-Afrikaanse Republiek heeft een lange periode van instabiliteit en burgeroorlog meegemaakt, die gekenmerkt werd door frequente en gewelddadige botsingen tussen rivaliserende godsdienstige en etnische groepen, met veel slachtoffers als resultaat. Een transitieproces is nu aan de gang, met een transitieregering die eigenlijk slechts een deel van de hoofdstad controleert. De transitieregering wordt niet erkend door alle groepen en is verdeeld. Het uiteindelijke succes van dit transitieproces is verre van verzekerd, geplande verkiezingen werden stelselmatig uitgesteld. Een zeker niveau van rust, dat zeker niet absoluut is, kan slechts verzekerd worden dankzij de aanwezigheid van verschillende militaire vredesmachten, al hebben recente confrontaties uitgewezen dat dodelijk en sectair geweld op elk moment, op eender welke plaats in het land en zelfs in de hoofdstad plots kan uitbreken.
Criminaliteit
Het wordt ten stelligste afgeraden zich alleen of te voet te verplaatsen, zelfs in de hoofdstad Bangui en zeker ’s avonds. Het is afgeraden om grote hoeveelheden geld of waardevolle zaken mee te nemen.
Hotelgasten worden aangeraden steeds hun deur op slot te houden en enkel te openen voor gekende personen en hotelbedienden, na controle van hun identiteit en hun aanmelding bij de receptie.
Er bestaan tamelijk veel hotels, maar de lokale en internationale veiligheidsmachten raden aan om in het “Ledger” hotel te verblijven omdat het gelegen is in een stadsgedeelte dat meer systematisch door internationale veiligheidsmachten bewaakt wordt.
News
Down2Earth koopt pralines Gudrun van familie Swenden
Edited: 201512311159
News
Kaakslag van 7,5 miljoen euro voor Koreaanse troostmeisjes WO II
Edited: 201512311117
Newsmonkey - DS
Maggie De Block: je kunt geen limiet zetten op het aantal vluchtelingen
Edited: 201512300905
Voluit was de uitspraak: 'We moeten realistisch zijn: alle vluchtelingen die hier nu zijn, gaan niet meer terugkeren. Je kunt ook geen limiet zetten op het aantal vluchtelingen'.
Commentaar LT: De eerste stelling is een voorspelling, de tweede is beleid. Het lijkt allemaal nogal gemakkelijk: je laat domweg begaan tot het scheepje zinkt. Iedereen aan boord en dan nergens heen. Zo doe je dat in de politiek.

In Nederland acht Diederik Samson (PVDA) 200.000 vluchtelingen haalbaar, maar krijgt de wind van voor.
Of en hoe het stelsel van de sociale zekerheid zo'n aantallen verteert, wordt er niet bij gezegd.

We brengen hier de wijze woorden van Etienne Vermeersch in herinnering.
News
30 december 2015: Erdogan op bezoek bij Salman. Turkije en Saoedi Arabië gaan nauwer samenwerken op alle fronten.
Edited: 201512300047
Het wordt een moeilijke klus voor de EU om Turkije te vriend te houden. Althans om die vriendschap aan de publieke opinie te verkopen. De verdere toenadering tussen Turkije en SAR - het regime wordt door HRW bestempeld als dictatoriaal en de mensenrechten schendend - weerspiegelt de zwakte van Europa om diplomatieke evenwichten na te streven. Erdogan speelt het spel hard en isoleert daarmee Iran en Assad.
News
Saoedi-Arabië rekent in begroting met olieprijs van 29$/vat in 2016
Edited: 201512291313
News
Terrorisme: 2 meisjes blazen zichzelf op aan busstation in Nigeria: tientallen doden
Edited: 201512290044
news
fotograaf Marc Lagrange (58) komt om in auto-ongeval - R.I.P.
Edited: 201512281050
News
Lybië wenst geen buitenlandse militaire interventie, zegt min BuZ Mohamed Al-Dairi
Edited: 201512272308
De minister meent ISIS/DAESH aan te kunnen met de binnenlandse strijdkrachten maar Lybië wenst wel meer wapens en training.
Op 11 december had de Franse premier Valls gezegd dat hij een Franse interventie wenste.
News
Koerden vragen autonome regio binnen Turkse grenzen
Edited: 201512272256
Dit is het gevolg van de aanhoudende aanvallen op Koerdische doelwitten.
De regering in Ankara wijst elke opsplitsing van het land af.

meer info
News
Erdogan zet 10.000 bijkomende soldaten in tegen Koerden in het zuidoosten
Edited: 201512171225
RT
Role of Saudi-led ‘military alliance’ put to question as some members reject participation
Edited: 201512162318
On Tuesday, Saudi Arabia announced the creation of an ‘Islamic military alliance’ with a mission to fight terrorism. Deputy Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman said the coalition of 34 Muslim states would fight the scourge in Iraq, Syria, Libya, Egypt and Afghanistan.
read more
Commentaar:
Kroonprins Salman oogste in zijn campagne tegen Yemen al geen geweldig succes.
Nu blijkt de communicatie binnen de Arabische Liga ook niet effectief.
Bujumbura News - Boubacar Sanso Barry
Van extreem geweld over burgeroorlog naar genocide? Honderden doden. Gaat Burundi de weg op van Rwanda?
Edited: 201512151426
"Comme jadis avec le Rwanda, l’humanité se trouve désormais interpellée par ce qui se passe au Burundi. Surtout après ce que la capitale Bujumbura a vécu ce week-end. Après les images horribles de corps jonchant les rues de la capitale que le régime s’est dépêché d’enterrer, on ne peut plus tergiverser, au risque de pécher pour non-assistance à personnes en danger. Parce qu’avec la répression sanglante et sauvage qui s’est abattue sur les quartiers contestataires de Bujumbura, après les attaques armées menées contre trois camps militaires de Bujumbura, aucun doute n’est plus permis. A ce rythme, Nkurunziza et les siens sont partis pour exterminer tous ceux qui sont politiquement ou ethniquement différents d’eux. Et, possédés par le diable en personne, ils ne semblent vouloir céder à aucune pression."
lees meer
News
Oplichting en fraude: 14 ziekenhuizen sjoemelen met facturen voor CT-scans Thuisverplegers sjoemelen met prestaties - RIZIV gaat terugvorderen
Edited: 201512151332
Lieven Annemans, gezondheidseconoom UGent, is niet verrast. Volgens hem is het het topje van een gigantische ijsberg.
Blijkbaar wordt de gezondheidszorg geplaagd door KLEPTOCRATIE.
Niet de gezondheid of de zorg telt, wel het gewin.
Dit is een kaakslag voor alle zorgenden die het wel eerlijk doen.
(wordt ongetwijfeld vervolgd ...)
News
Geen enkele regio voor Front National - Nationalisten nemen Corsica
Edited: 201512132330


Premier Valls noemt het geen echte overwinning voor de traditionele partijen en roept op tot waakzaamheid.
News
Frankrijk verlaagt na protest de BTW op tampons van 20 naar 5,5 procent
Edited: 201512130242
Georgette Sand est fière mais reste vigilante. C’est maintenant vers les industriels et les distributeurs que son œil se tourne : à eux de répercuter cette réduction sur les prix des protections périodiques afin qu’elle profite aux consommatrices dès le 1er janvier.
#NoTaxOnTampons
News
Dividend van 2 miljard euro van BNP Paribas Fortis voor Franse moeder BNP Paribas
Edited: 201512100335
De Belgische dochter helpt de Franse moeder opdat die haar kapitaalratio zou kunnen optrekken.
Bij de bank ziet men dit als een zuivere boekhoudkundige operatie. In de geconsolideerde balans per 31/12/2015 wijzigt er niets.
De vakbonden hebben een andere mening want er staan meer dan duizend banen op de tocht. Zij eisen uitleg van Maxime Jadot.
Le Monde
Bernard Tapie moet 404 miljoen euro terugbetalen in de zaak Adidas maar maakte nog vlug al zijn activa over aan een gerechtelijk beheerder
Edited: 201512080900
Le Monde révèle mardi matin qu'il avait pris soin, avant la décision de la Cour d'appel de Paris, de confier l'ensemble de ses actifs à un administrateur judiciaire dans le cadre d'une procédure de sauvegarde. (MetroNews)
La procédure de sauvegarde est une procédure collective qui protège les entreprises en difficulté en suspendant le paiement de dettes à l'ouverture de la procédure. Elle a été introduite en droit français par la loi 2005-845 du 26 juillet 2005. (wiki)
News - Libération - Figaro - l'Humanité
Front National wint regionale verkiezingen in eerste ronde in 6 regio's - La 'reconquista' de Marine Le Pen
Edited: 201512062336
Le Figaro en L'Humanité gebruiken hetzelfde woord op hun frontpagina: 'le choc'. Toch is de uitslag geen verrassing. De Fransen hebben niet gestemd maar geschreeuwd.
Marine Le Pen spreekt van 'reconquérir la France', een onverholen verwijzing naar de 'reconquista'.
Sarkozy wil niet weten van gezamenlijk opkomen met de socialisten tijdens de tweede ronde.


News
USA: San Bernardino aanval met 14 doden opgeëist door ISIS/DAESH
Edited: 201512061718
Lucas Tessens
De nachtmerries van SA en de USA: Hormuz en Aden, niet Syrië
Edited: 201512050133
Terwijl alle ogen gericht zijn op Syrië, ligt de aandacht van de USA en van Saoedi-Arabië aan de Arabische Zee: de Golf van Aden en vooral de doorsteek naar de Perzische Golf nabij Hormuz. Hormuz is de achilleshiel (chokepoint) van het Saoedische subcontinent. Een escalatie in de relaties met Iran zou catastrofale gevolgen hebben. De pacificatie over het atoomprogramma van Iran (20150402, P5+1, Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action - JCPOA) moet in dat licht worden gezien. De belangen van de USA liggen daarom minder in de Middellandse Zee en de strategische positie van Israël is geslonken. Het Suez-kanaal kan al lang niet meer tippen aan de Straat van Hormuz als het om de afvoer van olie met supertankers gaat.
De toegang tot de Rode Zee wordt door de USA beveiligd vanuit Djibouti. Camp Lemonnier is er de enige permanente US-base is op het Afrikaanse continent.
Syrië en de Middellandse Zee zijn veel belangrijker voor Rusland en Europa.




zie ook: The geo-politics of the Strait of Hormuz


News
Regering kiest voor kernenergie en cadeau aan ENGIE/Electrabel
Edited: 201512021454
De stemmingmakerij rond een electriciteitstekort werpt haar vruchten af. Doel 1 en 2 blijven open tot 2025. Heffing op Electrabel fors verlaagd.

News
Montenegro wordt lid NATO in 2017 - Rusland vindt dat provocatie
Edited: 201512021335
De toetreding van Georgië tot de NATO blijft in de koelkast want te riskant.

News
Duitsland stapt mee in strijd tegen ISIS/DAESH, maar gaat vooral logistieke steun leveren
Edited: 201512020307
Het Duitse parlement stemt hierover op vrijdag.


News
Irak/Sinjar - Genocide op jezidi's door ISIS/DAESH - Massagraven ontdekt
Edited: 201511301147
Sinjar ligt op de weg tussen Mosul/Mosoul/Mosoel (Irak) en Raqqa/Rakka (Syrië). De Koerdische peshmergatroepen heroverden Sinjar half november.
News
Iran/Teheran gaat voor 30 miljard euro olie- en gascontracten afsluiten - BP, Shell, Total en Statoil geïnteresseerd
Edited: 201511301135
News
Koppeling vluchtelingencrisis aan EU-lidmaatschap Turkije
Edited: 201511300015

Een Europese top in Brussel heeft zondag ingestemd met een hulp van 3 miljard euro aan Turkije om de vluchtelingencrisis in te dijken. Verder wordt de gesprekken over de toetreding van Turkije tot de EU geheractiveerd.
Commentaar:
Indien mocht blijken dat Turkije wapens levert aan ISIS dan is dit een merkwaardige en verontrustende ontwikkeling. De EU zou dan immers zelf de terroristische aanslagen financieren, weliswaar op indirecte wijze. Uitgerekend op dit moment zijn er aanwijzingen - uitgebracht door de Turkse oppositiekrant Cumhuriyet - dat de wapenleveringen aan het zogenaamde 'gemodereerde Syrische verzet' (o.a. aan de Turkmen) moeiteloos doorgesluisd worden naar ISIS/DAESH. Dat zou gebeuren met medeweten van de Turkse geheime dienst (Millî İstihbarat Teşkilâtı of afgekort MİT).
De toetreding van Turkije wordt overwogen en dichterbij gebracht niettegenstaande ernstige schendingen van de persvrijheid en andere mensenrechten door de regering van president Erdogan.
De vriendelijke bejegening van Turkije, kort na het neerschieten van een Russische jager, brengt de EU op ramkoers met Poetin.
Ook nog dit: op televisiebeelden was duidelijk te zien dat Jean-Claude Juncker dronken verscheen op de vergadering. Het drankprobleem van Juncker is een toegedekt geheim in Brussel maar de camera's van tientallen televisiestations lopen natuurlijk wel.


News
Turkije: oppositiekrant Cumhuriyet onthult wapenleveringen Turkije aan ISIS/DAESH
Edited: 201511300011
De redactie van de krant wordt beschuldigd van spionage en journalisten opgepakt.
HRW - The Guardian
Saoudi-Arabië: dichter ter dood veroordeeld wegens afvalligheid (apostasie, ridda)
Edited: 201511281459
De zaak tegen Ashraf Fayadh (35) ging aan het rollen na een ruzie met een man die hem vervolgens verklikte bij de religieuze politie.


lees het rapport over de rechtszaak
News
26 november 2015: ISIS eist de verantwoordelijkheid op voor de aanslag op een bus van de presidentiële wacht in de Tunesische hoofdstad Tunis. Bij de explosie zijn twaalf mensen omgekomen.
Edited: 201511261149
Volgens de Tunesische autoriteiten strijden duizenden Tunesiërs aan de zijde van de extremisten in Irak, Syrië en Libië.
News
Bibbergeld voor chauffeurs De Lijn is inderdaad fout signaal en discrimineert
Edited: 201511261109
News - RT
SYRIE: Turkse F-16 schiet Russische SU-24 neer - Zou gedurende 17 seconden in Turks luchtruim hebben gevlogen.
Edited: 201511250239


Turkije verklaart dat het tien waarschuwingen gaf. Boerenverstand zegt dat dat er veel zijn voor een schending van 17 seconden.
Poetin spreekt van 'een mes in de rug'. Rusland raadt Turkije af als toeristische bestemming.
Obama en NATO zalven.
Het incident verhoogt in ieder geval de complexiteit in het conflict.
Het schema van de (al dan niet openlijk) strijdende partijen, hun coalities, sponsors en vijanden is TENTATIEF.

Volgens Russische bronnen zijn de 'MOD's' (gematigde rebellen) een verzameling van huurlingen die vechten voor de hoogstbiedende, ook als dat ISIS is.
Er zijn ook nog Turkmenen, opererend aan de Syrisch-Turkse grens en gesteund door Turkije; de Turkmeense milities strijden tegen Assad én tegen de Koerden.
Het wordt hoog tijd dat de historische achtergronden en de (olie)belangen in kaart worden gebracht. Het is toch opmerkelijk dat de 'big players', de oliemaatschappijen, in de mediaverhalen niet in het vizier komen. Wiens concessies zijn er in het geding? Een ander probleem is dat van de wapenbevoorrading en de leveranciers van munitie. Tenslotte is het allerminst duidelijk hoe de geldstromen achter de schermen verlopen en wie er verdient aan het conflict.
De journalistiek faalt op verschillende niveau's en dat geeft de propaganda vrije baan.
News
OCAD zet Brussel op niveau 4 dreiging terrorisme - Antibacteriële beschermkledij vorige week gestolen in Parijs
Edited: 201511222338
De toestand in Brussel blijft alarmerend.
Metro en scholen blijven dicht op maandag. Ook in Vilvoorde en Dilbeek sluiten alle scholen.
Waarom het niveau 4 niet geldt voor het gehele land(je) is niet duidelijk gemaakt en journalisten laten na die voor de hand liggende vraag te stellen.

Zondag deed de politie in Brussel meerdere huiszoekingen en arresteerde 16 verdachten. Ook in Charleroi waren er drie invallen.

Le Parisien meldde vorige week de diefstal van antibacteriële kledij.
'Une dizaine de combinaisons de protection étanches, du type des kits de protection contre le virus Ebola, trois fois plus de paires de bottes en polyéthylène, une matière résistante aux agents chimiques, des gants, des masques antibactériens... Ces équipements ont disparu cette semaine d'un local sécurisé de l'hôpital pédiatrique de l'AP-HP Necker (Paris XVe).'
Het ziekenhuis stelde de diefstal woensdag vast en deed donderdag aangifte. De gestolen kledij vormt een volumineus pak. Bovendien is het lokaal beveiligd met code. Dat doet het vermoeden rijzen dat er meerdere personen bij de diefstal betrokken zijn.

Pro memorie: OCAD = Orgaan voor de Coördinatie en de Analyse van de Dreiging
News
Hotelgroep Marriott koopt concurrent Starwood voor 12,2 miljard US$.
Edited: 201511171324
Zo ontstaat een groep met 1,1 miljoen hotelkamers in 5.500 hotels in meer dan 100 landen.
Andere grote hotelgroepen zijn: Hilton en Intercontinental (Crowne Plaza en Holliday Inn).
News / Lucas Tessens
Armageddon start in Parijs - ca. 130 doden - tientallen zwaargewonden in kritieke toestand
Edited: 201511140250
Terreuraanslagen van ISIS/DAESH houden Parijs in een wurggreep. Zeven daders blazen zichzelf op, één gedood door politie.
Opvallend en onverklaard is dat drie zelfmoordterroristen met bommengordels zich opblazen aan het Stade de France en - buiten zichzelf - slechts één slachtoffer maken. In de concertzaal 'Bataclan' worden 89 mensen vermoord.
President Hollande spreekt van 'une barbarie'. Hij kondigt de noodtoestand af, legt drie dagen nationale rouw op en sluit de grenzen. Het openbare leven in Parijs valt stil.

De aanslagen worden gezien als een vergelding voor de luchtaanvallen van de Franse luchtmacht op stellingen van Isis in Syrië. Het lijkt erop dat een verhoging van de druk op de militaire poot van Isis in Syrië de jihadistische terreurcellen in West-Europa activeert. Communicerende vaten, dus.

Ooggetuigen aarzelen wanneer zij spreken over de daders: 'Ce n'était pas un grand blond.' (France 2)

Geopolitiek. De absolute expert Marc Trévidic (van 12 juni 2006 tot eind augustus 2015 juge d'instruction au Tribunal de grande instance de Paris au pôle antiterrorisme) zegt in de studio van France 2 dat de aanslagen ook diplomatieke gevolgen moeten hebben: 'nu omarmen we de staten die het terrorisme steunen en Frankrijk doet dat om de olieleveringen veilig te stellen'. Letterlijk: 'le wahabisme a diffusé cette idéologie sur la planète depuis le conflit de l'Afghanistan. (...) La politique américaine vous savez ce que c'est? On adore les fondamentalistes religieux s'ils sont libérales économiquement. C'est comme ça depuis des années. C'est leur crédo! C'est super les saoudiens, c'est super le Qatar, parce qu'ils commercent, ils sont libérales économiquement. C'est tout ce qui nous intéresse. Donc ils aiment les fondamentalistes religieux. On est dans un paradoxe total.' Commentaar: Dat is een duidelijke verwijzing naar het wezen van het (neo)kolonialisme: het plunderen van bodemrijkdommen door de grote oliemaatschappijen (The Seven Sisters), het installeren en koesteren van een corrupte bovenklasse (clans met hiërarchische familiale banden) in artificiële natiestaten, geen ontwikkeling van de bevolking in de gekoloniseerde staten; dat vormt de ideale voedingsbodem voor radicaal salafisme. Trévidic doet een merkwaardige verspreking: enerzijds vernoemt hij 'la politique américaine', anderzijds zegt hij 'nous'. Net daarin ligt de verklaring: de Amerikaanse politiek van de bovenklasse verschilt niet wezenlijk van die van de Europese of de Russische of de Aziatische bovenklasse. De essentie van het (neo)kolonialisme is de misdadige collusie van particuliere belangen. Het kolonialisme is geen fenomeen tussen staten maar een feitelijk verbond van particuliere groepen die zich van een staatsstructuur bedienen en die misbruiken.
Sociale psychologie. Het ontbreken van de mogelijkheid tot sublimering van driften (onderwijs, wetenschap, kunst, muziek, werk, ...) laat ruim de plaats voor de verheerlijking van oerdriften: seks en geweld. Het vertrek naar oorlogsgebied (Syrië) kadert in die logica.
Vrijdag 13 november 2015 is een trieste datum in de Franse geschiedenis. [Of de uitgekozen datum ook een symbolische betekenis heeft is niet duidelijk: op vrijdag de dertiende oktober 1307 werden in Frankrijk alle Tempeliers op bevel van Philips de Schone gearresteerd, op grond van valse beschuldigingen; dat was de start van de uiteindelijke vernietiging van de Orde van de Arme Ridders van Christus en de Tempel van Salomo, beter bekend als de Tempeliers. (wiki)]
Westerse staatshoofden zenden de klassieke solidariteitsbetuigingen.
Het is tijd om stil te staan bij de woorden van Malraux: 'Une vie ne vaut rien, mais rien ne vaut une vie.'

laatst aangepast op 20151116, 15:10
News
Gesjoemel: Europese Rekenkamer vindt 6,3 miljard euro foute EU-uitgaven
Edited: 201511121113
News
Gesjoemel met Italiaanse olijfolie. Merken Carapelli, Bertolli en Pietro Coricelli genoemd. Consument betaalt door de fraude 30 procent teveel.
Edited: 201511121107
News
film 'Black' leidt tot rellen in en rond Kinepolis Brussel
Edited: 201511121055
News
Superflitspaal in Gent flitst 2.821 keer in zone 30
Edited: 201511121039


De Gentse schepenen dromen al van een vette bonus.
wiki
Historique du Groupe Rossel - Le Soir
Edited: 201511111111
Historique
1887 : Pierre-Émile Rossel, avec trois amis, crée à Bruxelles un journal gratuit appelé "Le Soir".
1920 : « Rossel & fils » devient « Rossel & Cie ».
1921 : « L'Agence Rossel » (régie publicitaire) s'installe rue Royale à Bruxelles.
1957 : le siège social est installé 120 rue Royale à Bruxelles.
1966 : Rossel devient un groupe avec l'acquisition des titres de presse de «La Meuse» («La Meuse», «La Lanterne», «La Flandre libérale» et «Le Matin»).
1968 : acquisition des titres de presse de «La Gazette de Charleroi» («La Nouvelle Gazette» et «La Province»).
1970 : le groupe Rossel acquiert la marque «Vlan».
1983 : Robert Hersant entre au conseil d'administration du groupe.
1987 : Robert Hurbain succède à la présidence du groupe Rossel.
1987 : Socpresse (Robert Hersant, France) acquiert 40% du capital du groupe.
1987 : participation dans RTL Belgium (alors TVI SA) au travers d'Audiopresse.
1999 : constitution de la société Sud Presse SA (regroupant les titres La Meuse, La Capitale, La Nouvelle Gazette de Charleroi, et La Province).
2000 : Rossel met un premier pied dans « La Voix du Nord ».
2001 : Patrick Hurbain succède à Robert Urbain.
2003 : en Belgique, lancement du quotidien gratuit Metro en collaboration avec Concentra Media.
2004 : rachat avec De Persgroep de «l’Echo».
2004 : Sud Presse rachète Nord Eclair sur la Belgique.
2005 : prise de contrôle du groupe de presse «La Voix du Nord».
2005 : rachat avec De Persgroep de «De Tijd».
2005 : rachat des 40% du groupe détenus par la Souplesse.
2006 : Sudpresse lance l'hebdomadaire gratuit «7Dimanche ».
2006 : le groupe investit dans l’Internet en rachetant les sites de services www.netevents.be,www.ticketnet.be et www.cinenews.be.
2007 : Rossel déménage au 100 rue Royale à Bruxelles.
2007 : le groupe Vlan lance Fulai à Shanghai.
2007 : rachat du 1er site de rencontre en ligne belge www.rendez-vous.be et lancement d'un site consacré à l’automobile www.carchannel.be.
2008 : Rossel lance sa régie web interne.
2010 : le groupe Rossel acquiert Belgium-iPhone.
2011 : S²media rejoint le groupe Rossel.
2013 : acquisition des journaux français «l’Union», «l’Ardennais», «Est Eclair», «Libération Champagne», «l'Aisne Nouvelle» et de la radio «Champagne FM» auprès du groupe Hersant Media (GHM)4.
2014 : rachat de dix titres de presse à Lagardère Active, France, au sein du consortium 4B Media par Groupe Rossel et Reworld Media 5,6 : Psychologies magazine et Première reviennent à Rossel.
2015 : rachat de 50% de 20 Minutes, quotidien gratuit national français.
News
Alexander De Croo: "Stel kloosters en abdijen open voor vluchtelingen"
Edited: 201511100032
News
Veiling Ferrari's van Juan Carlos mislukt: 1 veel te laag bod
Edited: 201511081048
Een graadmeter voor de populariteit van de vorige eigenaar?
Een ding staat vast: het bod kwam niet uit Barcelona.
News
Egyptisch toerisme keldert nu ook burgerluchtvaart geviseerd wordt door ISIS/DAESH
Edited: 201511070156
News
Brusselse tunnels onveilig
Edited: 201511051124
Michel Hubert, een socioloog en mobiliteitsexpert aan de Université Saint-Louis (Brussel) is van oordeel dat ook de andere gewesten en de federale staat moeten betalen voor de renovatie van de tunnels 'omdat niet enkel Brusselaars door de tunnels rijden'.
Commentaar LT:
Voilà, dat heeft Hubert helemaal alleen gevonden. Knap, hé.
In die redenering moeten de Nederlanders meebetalen voor de Antwerpse ring.
Het doorschuiven van de Zwarte Piet is een favoriet spelletje in België. En dan volgt de bijkomende belastingheffing.
Rijden de superrijken niet door de tunnels?


News
Prix Goncourt, grootste Franse literatuurprijs naar Mathias Enard voor zijn roman ‘Boussole’.
Edited: 201511041156
News
Rik De Nolf (19491101) stopt op 1 januari 2016 als CEO van Roularta
Edited: 201510311152
Hij wordt opgevolgd door schoonzoon Xavier Bouckaert (40).


Hierboven een jonge en ontspannen Rik De Nolf (midden) op 28 oktober 1981 in restaurant La Pérouse te Antwerpen op het Avondmaal ter gelegenheid van de tweede vergadering van de Kongreskommissie van het 24ste Wereldkongres van de FIPP aangeboden door het bestuur van de Nationale Federatie der Informatieweekbladen (NFIW).
Op het menu: Turbotin Edouard Berghaud, Faisan du marquisat, Soufflé glacé et mousse au café, Moka, Pousse-café, overgoten met: Champagne Laurent Perrier, Pouilly Fumé-Chateau de Tracy M.O. 1979, Chateau Classe Spleen (Médoc Jeroboams M.D.C. 1976). (bron: menu gezeefdrukt op houten blokje met logo NFIW).
Links op de foto Luk Hiergens (Femmes d'Aujourd'hui/Rijk der Vrouw), rechts Nico Drost (Voorzitter FIPP). (foto LT)

organogram top Roularta

Raad van Bestuur


geschiedenis Roularta-groep

tijdlijn
News
China: ouders mogen voortaan 2 kinderen hebben. Belangrijkste beslissing in de 21ste eeuw.
Edited: 201510300125
News
Dieselgate: auto-lobby trekt aan langste eind: 168 milligram uitstoot NOx per km mag. Milieu en werkgelegenheid eens temeer in botsing.
Edited: 201510291209
News
Turkije: politie valt binnen bij twee TV-zenders, Kanalturk en Bugun TV.
Edited: 201510291133
News
minister Jacqueline Galant (MR) neemt advocatenkantoor Clifford Chance onder de arm zonder openbare aanbesteding of onderhandelingsprocedure. Ook geen visum van Inspectie van Financiën aangevraagd. Op ramkoers met Laurent Ledoux (FOD)
Edited: 201510282256
Oei !

De dames van de MR scoren slecht als het op transparantie aankomt. Eerder dit jaar werkte minister van Energie Marie-Christine Marghem (MR) zich negatief in de kijker door geheime contracten met EDF/Suez/Electrabel over de nucleaire rente. Die kostten de Staat (ons allen dus) honderden miljoenen euros. Om de begroting te doen kloppen moet die minderopbrengst gecompenseerd worden door bijkomende lasten voor de gewone burgers.
Beleid? Het algemeen belang?
News
Nederlandse koning Willem-Alexander maakt zich zorgen over de sfeer in het vluchtelingendebat.
Edited: 201510282203
In Nigeria maken de bewoners van de Niger-delta zich zorgen over de Shell-exploitatie. Ze verzuipen er in de olie.
News
Waterfactuur brengt arme gezinnen in problemen
Edited: 201510281316
36.611 gezinnen kregen in 2014 58.000 afbetalingsplannen opgelegd, zo meldt de Vlaamse Milieumaatschappij.
De waterfactuur van een gemiddeld Vlaams gezin is in dertien jaar (tussen 2000 en 2013) met ruim een drievoud gestegen, van 109,33 tot 344,66 euro. Vooral de gemeentelijke bijdragen namen toe.

In de drinkwaterfactuur zijn drie kosten opgenomen: de prijs voor de productie en levering van het water, de bovengemeentelijke bijdrage voor de zuivering van het afvalwater en de gemeentelijke bijdrage voor afvoeren en inzamelen van gebruikt water.

Die laatste factor kostte de gezinnen in 2000 nog helemaal niets. Maar de voorbije jaren rekenen steeds meer gemeenten ze aan.
News
Rood vlees is kankerverwekkend.
Edited: 201510261103
Dat is een lichtpunt voor de armen die geen vlees kunnen kopen: op water en brood leven is gezond. Voor zover de waterfactuur niet te hoog oploopt natuurlijk.
BBC
Vluchtelingencrisis in infogrammen
Edited: 201510252348
De BBC levert interessante infogrammen over de vluchtelingencrisis en de economisch geïnspireerde migratie. Maar het statistisch materiaal blijft een kluwen.

zie de infogrammen hier
News
Nyrstar in moeilijkheden. Koers keldert.
Edited: 201510231159
News
merken parkeren in G.H. Luxemburg: het kan tot 2021 onder fiscaal gunstregime: 80 procent van de inkomsten is vrijgesteld
Edited: 201510221033
News
De gezinnen betalen de stroomtaks, de grootverdieners gaan met de subsidies lopen
Edited: 201510190938

Grootste beneficiënten van de subsidies: ING, Katoen Natie, Enfinity 1, Zonnecentrale Limburg, e.a.
News
Chris Yperman overleden. R.I.P.
Edited: 201510180212
Christine (Chris) Yperman (Merksem, 11 augustus 1935 - 7 oktober 2015) was een Vlaams dichteres, roman- en toneelschrijfster. Yperman debuteerde met het publiceren van gedichten in het tijdschrift De Meridiaan. Vervolgens kwam in 1959 haar eerste roman uit; Een heel klein scheepje.
Yperman was gehuwd met beeldhouwer Roel D'Haese.
Werken:
Un mendrugo de pan (1956)
Een heel klein scheepje (1959)
Zon op de weg (1961)
Pour Delphine (1970)
Twee dames (1970)
Robrecht de Vrome (1974)
Jolie Madame (1987)
News
Krantenbedeling blijft volgende vijf jaar bij Bpost
Edited: 201510180207
Enveloppesubsidie zal wel dalen van 288 naar 250 à 260 miljoen euro per jaar.
News
Frankrijk bouwt fiscaal voordeel van dieselbrandstof geleidelijk af. Gelijkschakeling benzine en diesel.
Edited: 201510151019
Evolutie van inschrijvingen van dieselwagens: 77,3% in 2008, 64% in 2014.
Diesel vertegenwoordigt in 2015 80% van de verkochte brandstoffen in Frankrijk.

Commentaar: de zogenaamde 'ontdieseling' zal ook een boost geven aan de auto-industrie. Op korte termijn: vervanging van oudere dieselwagens. Op langere termijn: een hogere rotatie in het wagenpark wegens de kortere levensduur van een benzinemotor.
News
België: Taksen op roltabak worden fors verhoogd
Edited: 201510150136
De armere tabakverslaafde wordt zwaarder belast.
News
Vlaamse verkeersbelasting vanaf volgend jaar fors hoger. 'Dieselgate' alibi voor hogere fiscale druk.
Edited: 201510150115
Wie niet (meer) werkt wordt dus zwaarder belast voor hetzelfde goed. Ongrondwettelijk?
Leasingwagens blijven buiten schot omdat Vlaamse regering de fiscale concurrentie van de andere gewesten vreest.
Wat zich op Europees niveau afspeelt met de 'rulings', kent zijn gelijke op gewestelijk vlak.
News
Erdogan exporteert zijn censuur tijdens officieel bezoek aan België. Ontoelaatbaar, zegt VVJ.
Edited: 201510131101
In het journalistenmilieu zal Erdogan nu wel persona non grata zijn, ondanks zijn Grootlint in de Leopoldsorde. De Koerden kunnen er hun voordeel mee doen.
Maar, waarom gaan journalisten naar een persconferentie waarvan ze bij voorbaat weten dat er geen vragen mogen worden gesteld? Dan kan je toch gewoon het perscommuniqué laten ophalen en je kat sturen.
News
Nobelprijs Economie 2015 voor Angus Deaton (°1945)
Edited: 201510131021
De laureaat is een specialist in armoede en ongelijkheid. Zijn laatste publicatie is die van 2013: The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Het thema ligt dicht bij de onderwerpen waarmee Piketty de wereldpers domineert. De gezichtshoek is echter fundamenteel anders. Deaton's analyses zijn veel meer beschrijvend, daar waar Piketty de polemiek niet uit de weg gaat.
News / De Telegraaf / HLN / Standaard
Nederlands vrachtschip 'Flinterstar' gezonken voor Zeebrugge. Belgische overheid aan zet voor berging.
Edited: 201510100103
Donderdagavond 20151008 is een contract gesloten over het wegpompen van de olie uit het schip. Dat is volgens Bart Otto van rederij Flinter "total loss". Hij ontkent berichten in de Belgische pers dat hij ook al een contract zou hebben getekend over de berging van het scheepswrak. Volgens de Belgische wet is het aan de Belgische overheid hierin het voortouw te nemen, aldus Otto.



Wie de kosten van de berging uiteindelijk zal dragen wordt een juridische kluif. Maar zoals het er nu uitziet moet de Belgische staat wel opdraaien voor de voorfinanciering indien zij de hoogdringendheid inroept (mogelijke breuk wegens instabiliteit, milieuschade, versperring van de vaarroute, ...). Dat de rederij de Flinterstar 'total loss' noemt doet vermoeden dat de verwachte bergingskosten de waarde van het wrak overtreffen.

In een zaak van 2012 vonniste het Hof van Beroep te Antwerpen inzake het ms. Luxembourg als volgt: 'De wettelijke bergingsplicht van een gezonken schip en zijn lading rust bij de eigenaar van dit schip en niet automatisch bij de overheid die tot ambtshalve lichting kan overgaan wanneer de omstandigheden hiertoe vereist zijn. Afstand van scheepsvermogen doet hieraan geen afbreuk.'

Wordt het weer het verhaal van privatisering van de baten, collectivisering van de lasten?


News
Neoliberale uitverkoop Bpost en Proximus in de steigers
Edited: 201510081128
Een wetsontwerp maakt de privatisering van Bpost en Proximus mogelijk.
Nu beide bedrijven met overheidsgeld en drastische afslankingen bij het personeel superrendabel zijn gemaakt, mag de gemeenschap daar de vruchten niet van plukken. Neen, de vruchten worden doorgeschoven naar de superrijken.
Het is het bekende perfide spel: collectivisering van de lasten, privatisering van de baten.
News
Merkel en Hollande voor Europees Parlement: inhoudloos toneelstuk met Verhofstadt in krijsende en armenzwaaiende bijrol.
Edited: 201510081100
Verhofstadt: 'We beleven een polycrisis: de vluchtelingen, de economie, de euro, het duidelijk verlies aan geopolitieke invloed.'
Die analyse kan een klein kind (een 'joengk') maken.
Dat er ook een verregaande lafheid bij politici bestaat door hét probleem van de ongelijkheid niet aan te pakken en de rijken niet mee te laten betalen voor de kosten van de staat, zover kwam Verhofstadt niet want daarvoor is eerlijkheid nodig.
Alle begrotingen bestaan uit inkomsten en uitgaven. Dat is een axioma. Besparen op de uitgaven omdat je de inkomsten niet eerlijk int, is dubbel onrechtvaardig.
De neoliberale taktiek heeft er steeds in bestaan de inboedel van de staat te verkopen om de begrotingen te doen kloppen. Verhofstadt was de kampioen van dat perfide spel. En nu zitten we met private oligarchen die de bevolking naar hartelust kunnen uitzuigen. Zonder democratische controle. En na enige tijd kunnen de politici dan intreden in de raden van bestuur van de geprivatiseerde (nuts-)bedrijven. Als beloning wachten hen dan royale zitpenningen en mega-bonussen.
RTL Nieuws en VTM Nieuws 20150408 meldden:
Zo zit Verhofstadt in de bestuursorganen van APG (NL), Exmar en Sofina (dat belangen heeft in o.a. Danone en GDF/Suez, nu ENGIE). Bij Sofina trok V. in 2014 voor vier vergaderingen zitpenningen ten belope van 138.000 euro.
News
Vakbonden betogen met 80.000 à 100.000 te Brussel. Regering en werkgevers reageren niet. Standaard verwijst 'verslag' naar pagina 6: 3 foto's en een mini-tekst.
Edited: 201510081027
Onderschrift bij een foto: 'De betoging lokte onverwacht veel volk, maar op het einde waren er weer wat ongeregeldheden.'
Er wordt niet gezegd hoeveel betogers men dan wel verwachtte. Ook komen we niets te weten over het profiel van de herrieschoppers. Steevast worden die nogal gratuit als anarchisten bestempeld. Over hun identiteit hangt een waas van geheimzinnigheid, maar hun optreden lijkt wel ingestudeerd. Beroeps?
News
Enquête: jongeren ongerust en pessimistisch over toekomst
Edited: 201510080932
News
Uitgeverij Pelckmans neemt Van Halewyck over
Edited: 201510071149
De fusie wordt effectief op 1/1/2016.
News
Bezoek Erdogan: Belgische en Turkse veiligheidsagenten gaan op de vuist
Edited: 201510070048
Het officiële bezoek van Erdogan aan België verloopt verre van rimpelloos.
Ondertussen komt de VRT-nieuwsdienst opvallend mild uit de hoek voor strijdende Koerden in het Midden-Oosten. Met name Sirwan Barzani en zijn Zwarte Tijgers worden in een gunstig daglicht gezet door Rudy Vranckx, die hen vervoegt aan het front. Tegenover de peshmerga staan de jihadi's van IS.
News
Jongeren en maatschappij stevenen af op mega-probleem: alcoholisme.
Edited: 201510051024
We moeten maar eens op zoek gaan naar de psycho-sociale oorzaken van overmatig alcoholgebruik bij jongeren. Alcohol is een sluipend gif en de dramatische gevolgen laten zich pas voelen na 5 tot 10 jaar. Tegen die tijd zijn ook de partners en de kinderen meegezogen in de verslaving.
Alcohol wordt na een tijd beschouwd als snelwerkend medicijn om problemen niet meer te zien, om te ontkennen dat ze er zijn. Tot de volgende morgen.
Over de gevolgen van coctails - alcohol + canabis + cocaïne + slaapmiddelen + antidepressiva + xtc - is nog te weinig bekend maar het lijkt mij een evidentie dat de negatieve gevolgen exponentieel groeien naarmate er meer drugs worden gecombineerd.
Vergeten we niet dat alcohol (vuurwater) in de geschiedenis hele volkeren afhankelijk heeft gemaakt. Verslaving staat voor 'slaaf worden van'. Geen fraai perspectief.
Alcohol wordt ten onrechte beschouwd als een softdrug. Vanaf bepaalde dosissen (en die verschillen van persoon tot persoon) gedraagt alcohol zich in ons als harddrug en neemt de afhankelijkheid snel toe. Een alarmpeil wordt bereikt als er gedronken wordt voor het beëindigen van de dagtaak en als het drinken stiekem en alleen gebeurt.
News
Heisa: Liesbeth Homans benoemt Vlaming Eric De Bruycker tot burgemeester van Linkebeek
Edited: 201510051016
News
Hospitaal Médecins sans Frontières in Kunduz gebombardeerd: 22 doden
Edited: 201510051005
News
Zoveelste moordpartij op Amerikaanse campus. Deze routine is mensonterend, zegt Obama.
Edited: 201510031201
De routine: het feit, de verontwaardiging, het tonen van de verdrietbeelden, de officiële veroordeling, de media-heisa, het bestormen van het huis van de ouders, het pseudo-debat over de wapenwet en de 'constitutional rights' in de pers, de protesten op straat en op Facebook, de dolle Twitteraars, de holle verklaringen in het Congres, de verhuis van het voorval naar pagina 17, het vergeten ... tot de volgende moordpartij.
Je abnormaal gedragen in een zieke maatschappij behoort tot de normaliteit.
News
Europalia Turkije: premier Erdogan krijgt volgende week het Grootlint van de Leopoldsorde
Edited: 201510031144
De uitreiking van zo'n hoge onderscheiding hoort AUTOMATISCH bij een staatsbezoek, aldus De Standaard.
Je zou het een SYSTEEMFOUT kunnen noemen dat zoiets automatisch gebeurt. De diplomatie is aan herprogrammeren toe.
News
Na Volkswagen-affaire krijgt nu ook energieverbruik-labeling in de electrosector een ferme knauw
Edited: 201510030124
Is gesjoemel een evidentie en een gewoonte geworden in de zakenwereld? Of is het altijd zo geweest?
Overigens blijken de zogenaamde 'Medaille d'or' op wijnflessen fake.
Ook in de geneesmiddelenindustrie rammelt het langs vele kanten.
Er is moeilijk een sporttak te bedenken waar doping afwezig is.
De mainstream-media worden geplaagd door afluisterpraktijken en gebrek aan eerlijkheid.
De politici "zijn er altijd mee bezig" of zeggen "we zullen zien".
Presidentskandidaten worden gekozen op basis van verzamelde campagnegelden.
Er zijn verhoogde veiligheidsrisico's bij vliegtuigen omdat de kosten van onderhoud en inspectie daarvan de winstmarges drukken.
De voedselkwaliteit blijft een problematisch terrein; bvb. de Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO).
Er is een serieus probleem met hormonenverstoorders of EDC's (parabenen, ftalaten, Bisfenol A, pesticiden, ...).
De belastinginning gebeurt 'à la tête du client' (LuxLeaks) en onthullingen brengen geen actie op gang.
News
Kleding bevat giftige stoffen. Dat is slecht voor de werknemers die ze maken en slecht voor hen die ze dragen. Het verrijkt enkel diegenen die ze laten maken.
Edited: 201509300127
News
Afghanistan: Kunduz na maanden belegering in handen van Taliban
Edited: 201509291133
News
Frankrijk bombardeert IS/DAESH in Syrië
Edited: 201509281030
Daarmee kiest Frankrijk voor een tweetrapsmodel: eerst IS en dan Assad. Overigens brengt het Hollande dichter bij Poetin. De keuze is ook logisch want de regering van Assad biedt nog enige structuur in een uiteengevallen land. Realpolitiek dus. Assad is de vijand van onze vijand, dus is het onze vriend. Voorlopig.
Voor Dassault is het een mooie presentatie van de 'capabilities' van de Rafale. Die staat in concurrentie met de F-35. Dassault heeft lopende cont(r)acten met het Franse leger, Egypte, India, Qatar, Brazilië, de VAE.
News
Catalanen brengen in stemming afscheiding dichterbij
Edited: 201509280944
News
Tijdens de hadj in de Saoudische stad Mina, nabij Mekka, zijn meer dan 700 doden en bijna 800 gewonden gevallen. De meeste slachtoffers werden vertrappeld.
Edited: 201509251342
De hadj eiste in het verleden al meermaals doden door vertrappeling.
In Mina werpen de moslims stenen naar de Jamarat, symbool van de duivel.
De Saoudische regering wijdt de ramp aan de gelovigen die de consignes niet opvolgden. Anderen zeggen dat het de wil van Allah is geweest.
News
Bijstelling van de Millennium Development Goals: veel meer doelen, complexer, verwarrend ...
Edited: 201509250105
Door de batterij doelstellingen uitgebreider en complexer te maken kan je meer experten en consultants inschakelen om de prestatie-indicatoren te ontwikkelen, te verfijnen, bij te schaven, te beheren, etcetera. Die moeten rondvliegen, logeren in dure hotels, goed eten geserveerd krijgen, op recepties elkaar kunnen ontmoeten en peptalk verkopen, etcetera. Kassa.
Ziehier de 17 hoofddoelen:
1. Geen armoede
2. Geen honger
3. Goede gezondheid en welzijn
4. Kwaliteitsonderwijs
5. Gendergelijkheid (gelijkheid tussen man en vrouw)
6. Schoon water en sanitair
7. Betaalbare en duurzame energie
8. Eerlijk werk en economische groei
9. Industrie, innovatie en infrastructuur
10. Ongelijkheid verminderen
11. Duurzame steden en gemeenschappen
12. Verantwoorde consumptie
13. Klimaatactie
14. Leven in het water (ecologie)
15. Leven op het land (ecologie)
16. Vrede, veiligheid, openbare dienstverlening
17. Partnerschap om doelstellingen
Commentaar: Fiscale rechtvaardigheid en een eerlijke spreiding van de lasten zijn NIET opgenomen als doelstellingen. Laat het ontbreken daarvan nu net de redenen zijn voor de vele mistoestanden die er bestaan.
Bogdan Vanden Berghe (11.11.11): 'De landen uit het Zuiden waren vragende partij om een internationaal fiscaal orgaan op te richten, waardoor bedrijven die in arme landen produceren hun winsten niet meer kunnen versluizen naar belastingparadijzen elders in de wereld, maar moeten afstaan aan het land waar hun fabrieken zijn gevestigd. Dat idee is niet in de eindtekst geraakt.' (DS 20150915)
News
Zwembaddebat: Na de hoofddoek, de boerka, het onverdoofd slachten, Zwarte Piet, nu de boerkini ...
Edited: 201509241021
Er lopen klachten tegen het boerkini-verbod in zwembaden bij het Interfederaal Gelijkekansencentrum (IGK). De godsdienstvrijheid wordt ingeroepen.
Als er nu een godsdienst zou bestaan die naaktzwemmen verplicht, dan wordt het misschien nog een interessant debat in het zwembad.
Overigens is naaktheid de ultieme vorm van nederigheid. Want wie zich kleedt verheft zich boven diegene die geen geld heeft om zich te kleden. De naakten kleden mag dan door Jezus een werk van barmhartigheid worden genoemd, de naakte die niet gekleed wil worden moeten we ook respecteren. Want het kleed leidt al vlug tot ijdelheid en eigenwaan. U merkt het: het wordt een razend interessant debat. Het worden harde tijden voor de modekoningen. Ondertussen kunnen we ook nadenken over de ontwikkeling van stealth-kledij. Die zou de persoon volledig onzichtbaar maken en daarmee zouden dan alle problemen van de baan zijn. En ook dat is natuurlijk totale onzin.
News
VW: Martin Winterkorn neemt ontslag. Verklaring van Executive Committee suggereert dat geen van de eigen leden op de hoogte was van het bedrog. Dat lijkt ongeloofwaardig en geen garantie voor 'a credible new beginning'.
Edited: 201509240055
Wolfsburg, 2015-09-23
Statement by Prof. Dr. Winterkorn
"“I am shocked by the events of the past few days. Above all, I am stunned that misconduct on such a scale was possible in the Volkswagen Group.

As CEO I accept responsibility for the irregularities that have been found in diesel engines and have therefore requested the Supervisory Board to agree on terminating my function as CEO of the Volkswagen Group. I am doing this in the interests of the company even though I am not aware of any wrong doing on my part.

Volkswagen needs a fresh start – also in terms of personnel. I am clearing the way for this fresh start with my resignation.

I have always been driven by my desire to serve this company, especially our customers and employees. Volkswagen has been, is and will always be my life.

The process of clarification and transparency must continue. This is the only way to win back trust. I am convinced that the Volkswagen Group and its team will overcome this grave crisis."

_________________________________________________________

Wolfsburg, 2015-09-23
Statement from the Executive Committee of Volkswagen AG’s Supervisory Board
In a meeting on Wednesday, September 23, the Executive Committee of the Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG discussed in detail the manipulation of emissions data of Volkswagen Group diesel engines and came to the following conclusions:
1. The Executive Committee takes this matter extremely seriously. The Executive Committee recognizes not only the economic damage caused, but also the loss of trust among many customers worldwide.

2. The Executive Committee agrees that these incidents need to be clarified with great conviction and that mistakes are corrected. At the same time, the Executive Committee is adamant that it will take the necessary decisive steps to ensure a credible new beginning.

3. The Executive Committee has great respect for Chairman Professor Dr. Winterkorn’s offer to resign his position and to ask that his employment agreement be terminated. The Executive Committee notes that Professor Dr. Winterkorn had no knowledge of the manipulation of emissions data. The Executive Committee has tremendous respect for his willingness to nevertheless assume responsibility and, in so doing, to send a strong signal both internally and externally. Dr. Winterkorn has made invaluable contributions to Volkswagen. The company’s rise to global company is inextricably linked to his name. The Executive Committee thanks Dr. Winterkorn for towering contributions in the past decades and for his willingness to take responsibility in this criticall phase for the company. This attitude is illustrious.

4. Recommendations for new personnel will be presented at the upcoming meeting of the Supervisory Board this Friday.

5. The Executive Committee is expecting further personnel consequences in the next days. The internal Group investigations are continuing at a high tempo. All participants in these proceedings that has resulted in unmeasurable harm for Volkswagen, will be subject to the full consequences.

6. The Executive Committee have decided that the company will voluntarily submit a complaint to the State Prosecutors’ office in Brunswick. In the view of the Executive Committee criminal proceedings may be relevant due to the irregularities. The investigations of the State Prosecutor will be supported in all form from the side of Volkswagen.

7. The Executive Committee proposes that the Supervisory Board of Volkswagen AG create a special committee, under whose leadership further clarifying steps will follow, including the preparation of the necessary consequences. In this regard, the Special Committee would make use of external advice. Further details about this will be decided at the Supervisory Board meeting on Friday.

8. The Executive Committee is aware that coming to terms with the crisis of trust will be a long term task that requires a high degree of consistency and thoroughness.

9. The Executive Committee will work on these tasks together with the employees and the Management Board. Volkswagen is a magnificent company that depends on the efforts of hundreds of thousands of people. We consider it our task that this company regains the trust of our customers in every respect.

________________________________
Commentaar: gezien de extreme wereldwijde verwevenheid in de automobielindustrie (onderlinge levering van componenten - zie ons boeknummer 20000215) is het niet ondenkbaar dat het bedrog planetaire afmetingen heeft aangenomen en dat ook Franse, Italiaanse, Japanese en Amerikaanse groepen betrokken zijn geraakt bij wat nu 'dieselgate' wordt genoemd.
News
Van Thillo (Persgroep) wil adblockers laten verbieden
Edited: 201509231039
Dat lijkt ons een bij voorbaat verloren strijd.
News
Volkswagen knoeit met emissiewaarden van diesels. Aandeel crasht. Winterkorn geeft fraude toe.
Edited: 201509220010
Dienen hoge verloningen van CEO's als zwijggeld?
De merken van de VW-groep: Volkswagen-Personenkraftwagen, Audi, Lamborghini, Bugatti, Ducati, Škoda, Seat, Bentley, Porsche; Bedrijfsvoertuigen: Volkswagen-Lastkraftwagen, Scania, MAN.

Persbericht VW:
Erklärung des Vorstandsvorsitzenden der Volkswagen AG, Professor Dr. Martin Winterkorn:
Die US-Behörden CARB und EPA haben die Öffentlichkeit in den USA darüber informiert, dass bei Abgastests an Fahrzeugen mit Dieselmotoren des Volkswagen Konzerns Manipulationen festgestellt worden sind und damit gegen amerikanische Umweltgesetze verstoßen worden ist.
Der Vorstand der Volkswagen AG nimmt die festgestellten Verstöße sehr ernst. Ich persönlich bedauere zutiefst, dass wir das Vertrauen unserer Kunden und der Öffentlichkeit enttäuscht haben. Wir arbeiten mit den zuständigen Behörden offen und umfassend zusammen, um den Sachverhalt schnell und transparent vollumfänglich zu klären. Hierzu hat Volkswagen eine externe Untersuchung beauftragt.
Klar ist: Volkswagen duldet keine Regel- oder Gesetzesverstöße jedweder Art.
Das Vertrauen unserer Kunden und der Öffentlichkeit ist und bleibt unser wichtigstes Gut. Wir bei Volkswagen werden alles daran setzen, das Vertrauen, das uns so viele Menschen schenken, vollständig wiederzugewinnen und dafür alles Erforderliche tun, um Schaden abzuwenden. Die Geschehnisse haben für uns im Vorstand und für mich ganz persönlich höchste Priorität.

Technische truuk: Die bestaat erin dat een chip detecteert wanneer de VW-diesel op de rollentestbank werd gezet; de emissie wordt dan teruggeschroefd.

Wellicht is de affaire slechts het topje van de ijsberg en wordt er op grote schaal geknoeid met de emissiewaarden. Voor alle duidelijkheid: in de Belgische stations voor Technische Controle worden de wagens op CO²-uitstoot gemeten niet op rollen maar in neutraal en plankgas.
News
cocaïnebaron Silvio Aquino geliquideerd in Opglabbeek
Edited: 201508271843
Motief? Aangeschoten wild is nu eenmaal te riskant in het milieu en ook zingen is dat. De business heeft reeds andere distributiekanalen en de bevoorrading komt niet in het gedrang. Men verwacht dan ook geen plotse stijging van de 'street price'.
LT
nieuws gepresenteerd op WC-pot
Edited: 201508171237
Is het u ook al opgevallen? De presentatie-desk van het VRT-nieuws is een uitvergroting van een WC-pot. Een knipoog van de studio-ontwerper?
Het is niet eens zo gek. Zoals we ons voedsel verteren en uitscheiden, zo verteren we ook elke dag de voor ons klaargemaakte verhalen. Via de afvoerbuizen bereiken de berichten het riool, worden gezuiverd in een zuiveringsstation waar de residus gerecycleerd worden. Fast food en fast news, het ligt niet zo ver van elkaar af.
In overdreven mate geconsumeerd zijn beide slecht voor de gezondheid. Snel nieuws maakt ons op de duur immuun voor de synthese, de reflectie, de conclusie.
Meer dan ooit zijn goede boeken een tegengif voor de vrijblijvende resem van feiten die men 'nieuws' noemt. Nieuws verschaft ons het illusoire gevoel op de hoogte te zijn.
Kurdpress News Agency - KNA
Arab league condemns Turkey operations against PKK
Edited: 201508060901
All members of the Arab League but Qatar have condemned Turkey's operations against the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK) in northern Iraq.
Nabil al-Araby, secretary-general of the Arab League, an organization of Arab country members in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia, condemned the military operations.
The Turkish Armed Forces (TSK) started bombing PKK targets in northern Iraq since July 22, when some 22 people were killed in a suicide attack by the Islamic State (IS) in Suruc, a city in southeastern province of Sirnak. The PKK blamed Turkey government for allowing the IS to kill dozens of people, Zaman daily reported.
The TSK has since been bombing PKK depots in the Qandil Mountains. Ankara has also arrested hundreds of alleged PKK alleged sympathizers across Turkey.
Araby called on Turkey and Iraq to increase cooperation in order to preserve peace in both countries in a press statement according to a report by the Kuwait News Agency (KUNA).
Only Qatar expressed its reservations about the condemnation.
News Code: 11040 | Date: 2015/08/06 | Time: 8 : 39
BBC Newsnight
Newsnight reveals murder on Litvinenko was ordered by Russian state. The use of Polonium 210 points in that direction.
Edited: 201507280133
Apparently L. accused Poetin of pedophily.
Libération 20150619
Une commission chargée par le Parlement grec d’établir un audit des finances du pays estime que les plans d’aide des institutions internationales n’avaient pas vocation à sauver Athènes, mais seulement les banques étrangères.
Edited: 201506221119
news
Roubaix: architectuur: Interbellumparel Villa Cavrois van Mallet-Stevens opent deuren
Edited: 201506131030
De Villa Cavrois is geopend vanaf 13 juni 2015. Elke dag behalve op dinsdag, van 10u30 tot 18u30 van juni tot oktober, van 10u30 tot 17u30 in de periode november tot mei. Een ingangsticket kost 7,50 euro, groepen komen erin voor 6 euro (vanaf 20 personen en begeleid). Gratis onder de 18 jaar. Adres: Villa Cavrois, 60 avenue J.-F.-Kennedy te Croix (Roubaix). Bereikbaar met openbaar vervoer.



blogspot des amis de la villa

livre sur Rob Mallet-Stevens






AGEFI/Tribune de Genève
ETERNIT: L’Etat italien demande des dommages-intérêts
Edited: 201505230338



AGEFI:
VENDREDI, 22.05.2015
Affaire Eternit. Trois instances se sont constituées partie civile dans le but de porter plainte contre le Suisse Stephan Schmidheiny pour atteinte à l’image du pays.
L’Italie demande des dommages-intérêts à l’homme d’affaires suisse Stephan Schmidheiny. Le gouvernement invoque une atteinte à l’image de l’Etat italien à cause de la transformation de l’amiante par la société Eternit S.p.A.

Tribune de Genève:
Lors de l'audience préliminaire, jeudi à Turin, trois instances de l'Etat se sont constituées partie civile, a dit Lisa Meyerhans, porte-parole de l'industriel suisse. Ce sont la Présidence du Conseil des ministres, la région du Piémont et la province d'Alexandrie.

La défense s'opposera «évidemment par tous les moyens légaux à cette exigence absurde», a assuré Lisa Meyerhans. Le fait est que l'Etat italien «s'est fiché» durant des décennies de réglementer la transformation de l'amiante, a-t-elle estimé. Elle a ajouté qu'en Italie, outre Eternit S.p.A., un millier d'autres entreprises - dont plusieurs appartenant à l'Etat - travaillaient sur ce créneau.

Défaillances de l'Etat

Les défaillances de l'Etat sont décrites de façon détaillée dans l'arrêt de la Cour de cassation du 19 novembre 2014 qui sanctionne le premier procès Eternit en Italie. L'Etat a commencé à réglementer la transformation de l'amiante longtemps après la faillite d'Eternit S.p.A en 1986, fait valoir la porte-parole de Stephan Schmidheiny.

Si l'Union Européenne a publié en 1983 la directive n° 83/477 sur la protection des travailleurs contre les risques liés à l'amiante au travail, Mme Meyerhans a noté que ces lignes directrices, qui fixent la concentration maximale de fibres d'amiante dans les industries, auraient dû être reprises en droit national par les Etats membres au plus tard début 1987.

Or dans son arrêt de décembre 1990, la Cour de justice de l'Union Européenne a constaté que l'Italie n'avait pas intégré ces lignes directrices, faisant fi de ses obligations, a souligné Lisa Meyerhans.

Période «suisse»

Ce n'est qu'en 1991, soit cinq ans après la faillite de l'entreprise, que le gouvernement italien a adopté la directive correspondante; l'interdiction générale de l'amiante a suivi en mars 1992.

«Pour ce soi-disant préjudice d'image, le gouvernement italien ne peut s'en prendre qu'à lui-même», a poursuivi la porte-parole. Concernant la transformation de l'amiante par Eternit, comme il a été établi en première instance, les usines durant la période dite «suisse» (1973-1986) ont maintenu les standards internationaux de sécurité avec d'importants investissements (75 milliards de lires).

Autre procès possible

Stephan Schmidheiny pourrait faire l'objet d'un autre procès sur l'amiante en Italie. Le procureur de Turin l'accuse d'homicide volontaire et aggravé pour le décès de 258 personnes dans les régions où se trouvaient des usines d'amiante du groupe Eternit S.p.A.

Du point de vue du ministère public, le milliardaire suisse n«ignorait rien des dangers de la transformation de l«amiante. Il aurait néanmoins, par pure cupidité, continué à faire fonctionner les usines, omis de mettre un terme à l«usage privé de déchets du fibrociment et omis d«adopter des mesures efficaces pour améliorer la situation. (ats/Newsnet)

Ayelet Shaked, minister van justitie Israël
Edited: 201505110907
Ayelet Shaked (°1976) wordt de nieuwe minister van Justitie in de vierde regering van Benjamin Netanyahu. De politica van de extreemrechtse partij ‘Joods Huis’ wees steevast elk vredesakkoord met Palestina af. Nadat Hamas twee Joodse kinderen ontvoerd had, maande ze zelfs aan tot de annexatie van delen van de Westelijke Jordaanoever.

Op 16 november 2015 zei Shaked over het Midden-Oosten: "The entire region is shifting, and the nation states all collapse. It’s a tribal landscape now, and every bit of territory abandoned by the West is seized by radical Islam." (interview)
De Persgroep
Berlingske Media
Edited: 201505070833
In February 2015, the Danish media group Berlingske became part of De Persgroep when its parent company Mecom was taken over. Berlingske Media is deeply rooted in Danish society and with its strong brands has always had a huge influence on the media landscape in Denmark. The flagship of the group is the daily newspaper Berlingske, which was founded in 1749. It is the oldest newspaper in Denmark and one of the oldest in the world.

Berlingske Media, however, is more than just daily newspapers. The group also has weeklies, national and local radio stations, digital platforms, its own photo and news agency, city guides and a media research firm.


Management
Lisbeth Knudsen, CEO
Peter Nordgaard, CFO
Mark Hammerich, Marketing Director
Bjarne Werner Munck, Production Director
Gorm Wesing Flyvholm, Director of Berlingske Local Media
John Kristensen, COO
Mads Hyltoft Rønnov-Jessen, HR Director
Oil Industry News
Britain's North Sea Oil and Gas Firms must Look to Future Abroad: Kemp
Edited: 201503130901
Published in on Friday, 13 March 2015

The North Sea has already produced 42 billion barrels of oil and gas, but could have as much as 24 billion barrels left, according to FT columnist Nick Butler (“Don’t abandon the North Sea” Feb 22).

For North Sea operators and their supporters, the remaining reserves provide a compelling economic reason to keep producing to avoid leaving value locked in the ground.

The reserves represent tens of billions of dollars in profits, wages and tax revenues that would be lost if the North Sea fields are abandoned prematurely.

North Sea reserves have a strong political dimension because most operators and service companies are based in Scotland, where separatist sentiment remains strong despite the rejection of independence in last year’s referendum.

The economic reality is more complicated. The notional value of the oil and gas that would remain locked in the ground is not a convincing reason why it should be developed. In a market-based economy, resources are developed only if they can be extracted profitably.

And there are many instances where resources have been left in the ground or abandoned because it was no longer possible to exploit them profitably.

The distinction between exhaustion and profitability was central to the year-long dispute between the National Union Mineworkers (NUM) and the Conservative government led by Margaret Thatcher, the defining moment in Britain’s modern economic history.

In the early 1980s, Britain’s state-owned coal company wanted to close mines that were no longer profitable while the NUM resolved “to re-affirm the union’s opposition to all pit closures other than on grounds of exhaustion.”

The NUM demanded that pits remain open as a source of employment and national energy security as long as there was valuable coal underground (“Crisis management in the power industry” 1995).

Ironically, coal’s nemesis came from the giant gas fields found in the North Sea between the 1950s and 1970s, which threatened coal’s dominance in power generation (“Energy, the State and the Market” 2003).

Once the government’s support for coal was removed after the strike was broken, construction of coal-fired power plants ended and power producers raced to build cheaper gas-fired facilities to capitalize on the cheaper fuel.

By the end of the 1990s, nearly all of Britain’s pits had closed, although there were still billions of tonnes of coal left underground. Twenty years later, Britain’s gas supplies are dwindling, and the country increasingly relies on imported gas from overseas, raising concerns about “energy security”.

If energy security had been the clinching argument, the government would have intervened to keep more pits open. Instead, Britain chose a market-based approach. There is no reason why North Sea oil and gas producers should be treated any differently.

UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS

Britain’s oil and gas producers are among the victims of the North American shale revolution and the price war between OPEC and the U.S. shale industry.

Like Canada’s oil sands industry, which is also suffering, the North Sea is a relatively expensive source of oil and gas. In recent years, its prospects have depended on oil and gas remaining scarce and prices remaining high.

The North Sea must compete for investment with other oil and gas plays around the world. Before the shale revolution North Sea oil and gas appeared marginally profitable. But with oil prices now around $60 per barrel and widely expected to remain well below $100 for the next few years, the North Sea is no longer an attractive investment proposition.

UK operators tend to blame their problems on the tax regime, which they claim is more punitive and complicated than in other parts of the world. While there is some truth in this argument, the tax regime’s complexity is the legacy of government efforts to clamp down on previous tax avoidance.

In any event, the UK North Sea’s problems run much deeper than tax. Offshore platforms in a notoriously stormy area are a more expensive way to produce oil and gas than onshore shale plays in the United States.

The giant oil and gas fields discovered in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s could spread the fixed costs of platforms, pipelines and other infrastructure over a large volume of production. Recent field discoveries have been much smaller and have no such economies of scale.

Recent discoveries can only be profitable if they can utilize the existing infrastructure. The problem is that the infrastructure isn’t free and it isn’t public property: it belongs to existing operators, most of them major oil and gas companies, who have a legal obligation to decommission it.

If the infrastructure’s life is to be extended and decommissioning is to be deferred, money will have to be found for routine maintenance as well as capital upgrades.

There is a standoff between the would-be operators of small-scale new fields (who want the infrastructure to be preserved but don’t want to pay high fees) and the bigger legacy operators (who want to get on with decommissioning or charge significant fees to maintain the infrastructure for longer).

The dispute is often caricatured as a disagreement between entrepreneurial operators and stubborn greedy majors. In truth, it is a dispute about the costs of prolonging the life of the infrastructure and who should pay for them.

In a world where oil and gas were thought to be running out and prices were expected to keep on rising, it might have made sense to extend the useful life of the North Sea infrastructure. In a world of $60 oil, the economics are much more challenging.

Over the last 50 years, Britain has developed world-class expertise in offshore oil and gas engineering, which supports thousands of highly skilled jobs, and it would be a shame to lose it. But the industry’s future increasingly lies in selling that expertise abroad, rather than developing the North Sea itself.

Source - www.reuters.com
Guardian
HSBC could yet be prosecuted over tax-dodging scheme, warns Loretta Lynch
Edited: 201502171532
Paus Franciscus - Pope Francis
The light of Christmas - Het licht van Kerstmis - De wetten
Edited: 201412261421
This light was not seen, however, by the arrogant, the proud, by those who made laws according to their own personal measures, who were closed off to others.

Dat licht werd echter niet gezien door de arroganten, de hoogmoedigen, door hen die wetten maakten voor hun eigen profijt, die afgesloten waren van de anderen.
Al contrario, non la videro gli arroganti, i superbi, coloro che stabiliscono le leggi secondo i propri criteri personali, quelli che assumono atteggiamenti di chiusura.
Au contraire, les arrogants, les orgueilleux, ceux qui établissent les lois selon leurs propres critères personnels, ceux qui assument des attitudes de fermeture, ne l’ont pas vue.
En cambio, no la vieron los arrogantes, los soberbios, los que establecen las leyes según sus propios criterios personales, los que adoptan actitudes de cerrazón.
e não pelos “arrogantes, os soberbos, aqueles que estabelecem as leis segundo os próprios critérios pessoais, aqueles que assumem atitudes de fechamento.

src: News.va, 20141215
MercoPress News Agency & President Energy (press release 20141117)
UK company confirms discovery of oil in the Paraguayan Chaco
Edited: 201411181904



The company is President Energy Plc (PPC:LSE), its CEO is Peter Levine. Oil well's name: Lapacho well. The Chaco region is dominated by big landowners. Note that Paraguay is a net importer of fuel.
Lucas Tessens
Verhuis maatschappelijke zetel naar 'tax heavens' al jaren aan de gang
Edited: 201411042252

Bloomberg en andere Amerikaanse media rapporteren al jaren over het fenomeen dat grote - zelfs beursgenoteerde bedrijven - hun maatschappelijke zetel verhuizen naar belastingparadijzen. (zie U.S. Companies Beat the System With Irish Addresses) In het jargon van fiscale specialisten wordt zo'n operatie 'inversion' genoemd. Tien jaar geleden stemde het Congres van de US een 'anti-inversion'-wet om delocalisatie van maatschappelijke zetels en de daaraan verbonden belastingvlucht tegen te gaan. Die wet van 2004 (in feite een kanjer van een kaderwet die in sneltreinvaart onder de titel American Jobs Creation Act werd goedgekeurd) liet echter een serieus en niet onschuldig republikeins achterpoortje open: tijdens een 'merger' met een niet-Amerikaans bedrijf mogen de Amerikaanse bedrijven hun zetel naar elders verhuizen. In feite ondersteunde de USA op die manier rechtstreeks de jacht op (Europese) bedrijven: met de tax-reductie alleen al kon men een deel van (of geheel) de overname(-s) financieren. Dit laat zich uitdrukken in een formule (hier met een voorbeeld voor Ierland): Pp = PA - (Tusa - Teire) . Deze formule zegt niets anders dan: The price paid equals the price of the acquisition minus the difference between taxes in the USA and the taxes paid in Ireland. In sommige gevallen gaat het om miljarden dollars. Populaire bestemmingen van de verhuizers zijn Zwitserland, Bermuda, Ierland, UK.

Jacob J. Lew, de U.S. Treasury Secretary, deed op 27 juli 2014 in The Washington Post een dringende oproep om de wet van 2004 te wijzigen: Close the tax loophole on inversions. Een dringende oproep dat wel, maar de ondertoon is er een van machteloosheid. Het argument dat de gehele Amerikaanse infrastructuur (inclusief het formidabele defensiebudget) dreigt te kapseizen wanneer de gewone belastingbetaler (lees: de middenklasse) die alleen moet dragen, snijdt hout.
Anderzijds is het klaar dat de klassieke investeringstroeven zoals een hardwerkende en goed opgeleide bevolking, redelijke loonkosten, degelijk universitair onderwijs, goede wegen en havens, ondergeschikt geraken aan die ene vraag: wat is het taxpercentage in een land?

Vanuit Europees oogpunt is 'inversion' een bedreiging omdat - zoals gezegd - het taksvoordeel het wegkopen van Europese bedrijven faciliteert. Maar er is meer. Eens een multinational neerstrijkt in een EU-lidstaat en daar massaal de staatskas spijst, wordt die lidstaat als het ware een natuurlijke bondgenoot in Brussel om de op til zijnde merger niets in de weg te leggen. Wiens brood men eet, diens ... u weet wel. En omdat de concentratie van vermogens op een planetaire schaal gebeurt, is de democratische besluitvorming nationaal en internationaal in gevaar.

De verovering van de Senaat door de Republikeinen zal er geen goed aan doen.


YELLEN Janet L., Chair Federal Reserve Board
The extent of and continuing increase in inequality in the United States greatly concern me
Edited: 201410192014
"The past several decades have seen the most sustained rise in inequality since the 19th century after more than 40 years of narrowing inequality following the Great Depression. (...) The distribution of wealth is even more unequal than that of income, and the SCF shows that wealth inequality has increased more than income inequality since 1989. The wealthiest 5 percent of American households held 54 percent of all wealth reported in the 1989 survey. Their share rose to 61 percent in 2010 and reached 63 percent in 2013." ...
Read the full text of this most important speech here

See her accompanying dataset here

For her biography look here

In fact, Yellen follows the findings of Thomas Piketty. Let's see where this brings us and the US ...

News Experta Luxembourg
Edited: 201409231102
Éric Breuillé, 54 ans, prend la responsabilité du département Markets & Business Development chez Experta. Il a une expérience de plus de 20 ans comme gestionnaire de fortune auprès de plusieurs banques privées suisses et luxembourgeoises. En tant que responsable Wealth Planning, il a développé pour la Banque Syz & Co un réseau de gérants indépendants pour la Suisse, la France et le Luxembourg
PIKETTY Thomas
Aanval op Piketty lijkt afgeslagen
Edited: 201405262121
Journailist Chris Giles van de Financial Times had de cijfers van P. in twijfel getrokken. Een poging tot beschadiging van een imago ? DS 20140526.

In de link een zeer goed artikel van The New Statesman van 3 april 2014. Daarin een perfecte synthese van het boek: "The central thesis of Piketty’s latest book is that in societies where the rate of return on capital outstrips economic growth, wealth inequality ineluctably rises. Once constituted, capital reproduces itself faster than economic output increases. The entrepreneur becomes a rentier and inequalities harden. We are returning to the 19th-century world of the novels of Balzac and Jane Austen, whose characters are caught up in the trials and tribulations of inheriting, living off or losing wealth."

The New Statesman
COUTUER Jo, DataNews 20120604
Deloitte neemt Numius over
Edited: 201405062237
Deloitte Consulting heeft de Leuvense specialist in performance management Numius overgenomen.

Numius werd in 1999 uit de grond gestampt door Geert Hallemeesch en Jo Coutuer, destijds nog onder de naam 'Hallemeesch & Coutuer'. Later voegde ook Thierry Cloetens bij de aandeelhouderstructuur. Vandaag is Numius, een IBM Premier Business Partner, uitgegroeid tot een firma van 33 mensen en een omzet van zo'n 5,5 miljoen euro.

"Deloitte en wijzelf hadden allebei een businessplan over de lange termijn", vertelt Jo Coutuer, managing partner bij Numius. "Na wat gesprekken hebben we beseft dat we ons beider plannen sneller gezamenlijk zouden kunnen verwezenlijken." Het team van de Information Management Service Line van Deloitte Consulting stond vooral sterk in SAP, terwijl Numius voorop liep in IBM. "Ons ook bekwamen in SAP zou jaren gekost hebben", geeft Coutuer toe. "Bovendien waren we zo echt complementair, ook op vlak van klanten." Voorts, zo zegt hij, is de managementstructuur vergelijkbaar en is de manier van diensten aanbieden gelijkaardig. "Numius voegt bovendien zijn business analytics cloudplatform toe en zijn opleidingen via 'Numius Academy'."

De overname heeft voor de klanten van beide bedrijven geen noemenswaardige gevolgen. Intern versmelten de managementstructuren van beide bedrijven. "Beide teams verhuizen binnenkort naar een 'nieuwe zone' in de gebouwen van Deloitte in Diegem, zodat het voor iedereen 'nieuw' is. Juridisch is het wel een overname, maar operationeel zien we het liever als een fusie. De twee teams hebben immers een perfect vergelijkbare omvang." Door het samengaan ontstaat een ploeg van zo'n 75 mensen.

Financieel wilt Coutuer niet teveel details kwijt. "Maar ik wil wel benadrukken dat we door deze overnameovereenkomst veeleer ons risico als ondernemers 'poolen'. Met andere woorden: we blijven ondernemen. Dat het management ook na de overname aan boord blijft - we hebben geen minimumtermijn of iets dergelijks moeten tekenen - bewijst dat volgens mij."
news
the connection between Chodiev and Kubla
Edited: 201404111250
Patokh Chodiev was born in Uzbekistan. He studied international law and Japanese in Moscow, Russia. Chodiev lived in Japan.[2] Chodiev later established the Chodiev Group.
The Trio and Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation

With his partners Mashkevich and Ibragimov, Chodiev is a major shareholder in Eurasian Natural Resources Corporation (ENRC), one of the world's leading natural resources groups. ENRC, based in London, operates a number of metals assets in Kazakhstan and Africa, having acquired numerous mining operations in Eastern Europe and Africa. In 2009, ENRC generated a $1,462 million profit on sales of $3.8 billion.

ENRC was floated on the London Stock Exchange in December 2007, with a market capitalisation on Admission of approximately £6.8 billion.
Acquisition of Belgian citizenship

Chodiev acquired the Belgian citizenship on 27 June 1997 with help from the mayor of Waterloo, Serge Kubla (Mouvement Réformateur), of Czech origin and his closest neighbour, and later (1999-2004) Minister of Economy and Foreign Commerce in the regional Walloon Government. That naturalization was irregularly obtained as knowledge of at least one official language of Belgium (Dutch, French or German) was then compulsory to become a Belgian citizen, and Chodiev spoke none of them. Moreover, the Belgian State Security Service had sent beforehand a report to the local police informing it of the mafia connections of Chodiev.[3][4]
6 april 2014: Boek over Paul Otlet verschenen
Edited: 201404068827
The dream of capturing and organizing knowledge is as old as history. From the archives of ancient Sumeria and the Library of Alexandria to the Library of Congress and Wikipedia, humanity has wrestled with the problem of harnessing its intellectual output. The timeless quest for wisdom has been as much about information storage and retrieval as creative genius.

In Cataloging the World, Alex Wright introduces us to a figure who stands out in the long line of thinkers and idealists who devoted themselves to the task. Beginning in the late nineteenth century, Paul Otlet, a librarian by training, worked at expanding the potential of the catalog card, the world's first information chip. From there followed universal libraries and museums, connecting his native Belgium to the world by means of a vast intellectual enterprise that attempted to organize and code everything ever published. Forty years before the first personal computer and fifty years before the first browser, Otlet envisioned a network of "electric telescopes" that would allow people everywhere to search through books, newspapers, photographs, and recordings, all linked together in what he termed, in 1934, a réseau mondial—essentially, a worldwide web.

Otlet's life achievement was the construction of the Mundaneum—a mechanical collective brain that would house and disseminate everything ever committed to paper. Filled with analog machines such as telegraphs and sorters, the Mundaneum—what some have called a "Steampunk version of hypertext"—was the embodiment of Otlet's ambitions. It was also short-lived. By the time the Nazis, who were pilfering libraries across Europe to collect information they thought useful, carted away Otlet's collection in 1940, the dream had ended. Broken, Otlet died in 1944.

Wright's engaging intellectual history gives Otlet his due, restoring him to his proper place in the long continuum of visionaries and pioneers who have struggled to classify knowledge, from H.G. Wells and Melvil Dewey to Vannevar Bush, Ted Nelson, Tim Berners-Lee, and Steve Jobs. Wright shows that in the years since Otlet's death the world has witnessed the emergence of a global network that has proved him right about the possibilities—and the perils—of networked information, and his legacy persists in our digital world today, captured for all time.
BELGA news agency
Nieuw licht op het ‘financieel brokkenparcours’ van Leopold II
Edited: 201308270900
De Standaard | 27/08/2013 om 16:44 door jta | Bron: Belga
Historicus Geert Leloup (UGent en Rijksarchief) schetst in zijn doctoraat over het Rekenhof hoe de instelling van de oprichting in 1830 tot aan de vooravond van de Tweede Wereldoorlog evolueerde van een soepele instelling naar een log bureaucratisch apparaat, en hoe de politisering haar intrede maakte. Wat vooral in het oog springt in het onderzoek is de passage die het financiële beleid van Leopold II als vorst van Congo-vrijstaat belicht.

België en Congo vormden aanvankelijk twee afzonderlijke landen die één koning deelden. In 1890 diende Leopold II echter een beroep te doen op steun van de Belgische overheid om ‘zijn Congo’ overeind te houden. In ruil verwierf de Belgische regering inzage in Congolese begrotingen en rekeningen en inspraak in de uitgifte van leningen.

Even dreigde het voor Leopold II helemaal mis te gaan, toen de Belgische regering kritiek uitte op een bijkomende persoonlijke subsidie aan Congo, goed voor 750.000 toenmalige Belgische frank. ‘Cruciaal was dat dit bedrag in de aan België voorgelegde rekening plots omschreven werd als een aan Leopold II terug te betalen voorschot’, aldus Leloup.

‘De uitleg van Leopolds medewerker Camille Janssens dat het geen lening was aangezien geen intrest werd geëist, kon Minister van Financiën Auguste Beernaert niet overtuigen. Die liet eenvoudigweg weten dat elke persoonlijke bijdrage van de koning definitief was’, stelt de historicus.

‘De Affaire de Browne de Tiège’

Leopolds privéfortuin kreeg zo onverwacht een zware klap, maar de vorst gaf zich niet zomaar gewonnen. ‘Hij bleef tot 1894 grote sommen in Congo pompen, maar zorgde er nu wel voor dat dit niet in de begrotingen of rekeningen zichtbaar was. De koning kon deze zwendel niet lang volhouden, want Congo slokte veel geld op.’

‘Hoogtepunt was dan ook de Affaire de Browne de Tiège : Leopold II ‘bekende’ eind 1894 dat hij zonder medeweten van de regering bij deze Antwerpse bankier een lening van 4,5 miljoen frank had afgesloten tegen een woekerrente en met een deel van Congolese grondgebied als onderpand, terwijl het geld eigenlijk van de vorst zelf afkomstig was. Om deze ‘lening’ af te lossen, kreeg hij vervolgens extra geld van België, wat in combinatie met de groeiende Congolese opbrengsten tot grote winsten leidde, winsten die de Leopold ook liet wegsluizen.’

Leloup wijst erop dat het daar niet bij bleef. ‘Congo was al die tijd verboden terrein voor het Rekenhof, zelfs indien Leopolds koloniale avonturen indirect repercussies hadden op de Belgische overheidsfinanciën.’

Hoewel de belangrijkste gegevens met betrekking tot de Congolese financiën al gekend waren, onder meer door het baanbrekend onderzoek van wijlen professor Jean Stengers (ULB), is het de eerste keer dat deze feiten meer in detail onderzocht werden. De inventaris van Geert Leloup van het voordien ontoegankelijke archief van het Rekenhof - zo’n 325 strekkende meter tot 1939 - opent bovendien nieuwe onderzoeksmogelijkheden.


raadpleeg de nota van het Rijksarchief
Human Rights Watch
Stop Harassing Writer Akram Aylisli - Authorities Should Protect Author, Uphold Free Speech
Edited: 201302121058
FEBRUARY 12, 2013
(Moscow) – The Azerbaijani government should immediately end a hostile campaign of intimidation against writer Akram Aylisli. Aylisli recently published a controversial novel depicting relationships between ethnic Azeris and Armenians in Azerbaijan.

Foreign governments and intergovernmental organizations of which Azerbaijan is a member should speak out against this intimidation campaign. They should urge the authorities to immediately investigate those responsible for threats against Aylisli, and to respect freedom of expression.

“The Azerbaijani authorities have an obligation to protect Akram Aylisli,” said Hugh Williamson, Europe and Central Asia director at Human Rights Watch. “Instead, they have led the effort to intimidate him, putting him at risk with a campaign of vicious smears and hostile rhetoric.”

Aylisli, a member of the Union of Writers of Azerbaijan since the Soviet era, is the author of Stone Dreams. The novel includes a description of violence by ethnic Azeris against Armenians during the 1920s, and at the end of the Soviet era, when the two countries engaged in armed conflict. Aylisli told Human Rights Watch that he saw the novel as an appeal for friendship between the two nations. The novel was published in Friendship of Peoples, a Russian literary journal, in December 2012.

Azerbaijan and Armenia fought a seven-year war over Nagorno-Karabakh, a primarily ethnic Armenian-populated autonomous enclave in Azerbaijan. Despite a 1994 ceasefire, the conflict has not yet reached a political solution. Against the background of the unresolved nature of the conflict, Aylisli’s sympathetic portrayal of Armenians and condemnation of violence against them caused uproar in Azerbaijan. An escalating crescendo of hateful rhetoric and threats against Aylisli started at the end of January 2013, culminating in a February 11 public statement by Hafiz Hajiyev, head of Modern Musavat, a pro-government political party. Hajiyev publicly said that he would pay AZN10,000 [US$12,700] to anyone who would cut off Aylisli’s ear.

“Azerbaijan’s authorities should immediately investigate and hold accountable anyone responsible for making threats against Aylisli, and ensure his personal safety,” Williamson said.

On January 29, officials from the Yeni Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan’s ruling party, publicly called on Aylisli to withdraw the novel and ask for the nation’s forgiveness. Aylisli told Human Rights Watch that two days later, a crowd of about 70 people gathered in front of his home, shouting “Akram, leave the country now,” and “Shame on you”, and burned effigies of the author. Witnesses told Human Rights Watch that police were present but made no effort to disperse the crowd. No damage was done to Aylisli’s home.

In a speech about Aylisli’s book, a high level official from Azerbaijan’s presidential administration said that, “We, as the Azerbaijani people, must express public hatred toward these people," a comment that appeared aimed at Aylisli.

During a February 1 session, some members of Azerbaijan’s parliament denounced Aylisli, called for him to be stripped of his honorary “People’s Writer” title and medals, and demanded that he take a DNA test to prove his ethnicity. On February 7, President Ilham Aliyev signed a decree stripping Aylisli of the title, which he had held since 1998, and cutting off his presidential monthly pension of AZN1000 [US$1,270], which he had drawn since 2002. Aylisli learned of the presidential decree from television news.

In the wake of the public vitriol, Aylisli’s wife and son were fired from their jobs. On February 4, a senior officer at Azerbaijan’s customs agency forced Najaf Naibov-Aylisli, Aylisli’s son, to sign a statement that he was “voluntarily” resigning from his job as department chief. Aylisli told Human Rights Watch his son had received no reprimands during his 12 years on job.

“My son had nothing to do with politics,” Aylisli said. “In fact he always advised me not to write about politics and never agreed with my political views.”

On February 5, Aylisli’s wife, Galina Alexandrovna, was forced to sign a “voluntary” statement resigning from her job at a public library, following an inspection announced several days before.

Public book burnings of Aylisli’s works, some organized by the ruling party, have taken place in several cities in Azerbaijan.

“The government of Azerbaijan is making a mockery of its international obligations on freedom of expression,” Williamson said. “This is shocking, particularly after Azerbaijani officials flocked to Strasbourg last month to tout the government’s human rights record at the Council of Europe.”

The European Court of Human Rights has issued numerous rulings upholding the principle that freedom of speech also protects ideas that might be shocking or disturbing to society. In a judgment handed down against Azerbaijan, in a case that dealt speech related to the Nagorno Karabakh conflict, the court said, “[F]reedom of information applie[s] not only to information or ideas that are favorably received, but also to those that offend, shock or disturb.”
news
9 oktober 2012: Malala Yousafzai (°1997) neergeschoten door Taliban
Edited: 201210091530
Terwijl ze op 9 oktober 2012 in de bus terugkeerde van school, pleegde een Talibanstrijder een doelgerichte aanslag op haar, waarbij ze zwaargewond raakte door een kogel in haar hoofd en haar hals. Artsen verwijderden in een ziekenhuis in Rawalpindi de kogel uit haar hoofd. De Taliban dreigde haar alsnog te zullen ombrengen.
Guido Van Liefferinge
Over mediaconcentratie en de VRM. Open brief aan Apache
Edited: 201203271311
27 maart 2012 @ 13:11
Ik kijk met belangstelling uit naar de volgende afleveringen van dit dossier dat geen dag te vroeg komt. Dit inleidend stuk schetst de contouren waar binnen de Vlaamse Regulator voor de Media (VRM) werkt en legt al meteen de pijnpunten bloot. De VRM houdt hoofdzakelijk economische maatstaven naar dominantie in het oog , Niet dat die niet medebepalend zouden zijn voor de mediaconcentratie in Vlaanderen die trouwens ook op dat vlak groot is .Het feit dat zo’n doorgedreven concentrate zou nodig zijn om onze mediahuizen te laten overleven is een doekje voor het bloeden. Immers, aanvankelijk heeft de taalbarriere er mogelijke buitenlandse investeerders van weerhouden om hier krantenbedrijven op te kopen. Intussen heeft de internationalisering en globalisering van wat men “de media ” is gaan noemen waarvan de printmedia/pers integraal deel is gaan uitmaken, ervoor gezorgd dat ze vroeg of laat volledig in buitenlandse handen kunnen komen . Dat geldt trouwens al voor een aantal, w.o. Sanoma en Telenet. Aan de wetgever om daar wat aan te doen indien hij dat noodzakelijk acht .
Belengrijker lijkt mij dat de VRM in zijn onderzoek een onderscheidt tussen 1. Mediabedrijven die hoofdzakelijk of alleen maar met entertainment bezig of het doorgeefluik ervan (vb. Alfacam, Belgacom, Mobistar, Telenet) ; 2. Persbedriiven die deel uitmaken van een mediabedrijf en welk aandeel ze daarbinnen hebben. Nog niet zo heel lang geleden was een mediabedrijf een
persbedrijf dat dan nog hoofdzakelijk een printmedium was ( kranten, tijdschriften, huis-aan-huisbladen) met bovendien een specifieke journalistieke opdracht als Vierde Macht en garant van de vrijheden en waarden van de democratische rechtstaat. Met de invoering van het allesomvattend begrip “de media” is deze opdracht steeds meer naar de achtergrond verdwenen of zelfs helemaal ondergesneeuwd geraakt. De nieuwe media tycoons zijn obsessioneel bezig met geld en macht en daarin is steeds minder plaats voor onafhankelijke en kritische journalistiek die bovendien hun belangen kan schaden, en op de koop toe handenvol geld kost.
Indien de VRM zijn onderzoek hierop zou toespitsen, wat eigenlijk haar core business zou moeten zijn te meer niemand en zeker niet zijn opdrachtgever de essentiele taak van de pers als Vierde Macht in een democratische rechtsstaat in vraag durft te stelllen ( dat komt misschien nog wel als geld en macht alles dicteert ) , zou het resultaat op zijn zachtst uitgedrukt schokkend zijn vanuit dat oogpunt. De overdreven mediaconcentratie heeft ervoor gezorgd dat de pers een hond is die misschien nog wel mag blaffen maar al lang niet meer kan bijten, laat staan de waakhond zijn waarvoor hij werd opgeleid. Dat vertaalt zich in gemuilkorfde hoofdredacties en redacties waar integriteit en de onafhankelijkheid zijn opgeheven, , zelfcensuur en zelfpromotie schering en inslag zijn uit puur lijfbehoud, de omerta heerst , waar journalisten God en Klein Pierke aan het kruis mogen nagelen vaak op basis van leugens en halve waarheden, bedenkelijke anonieme getuigenissen , zelfs leugens en pure verzinsels . En waar hoofdredacteuren en journalisten spastische stuiptrekkingen krijgen als ze met terechte en verantwoorde mediakritiek te maken krijgen die zelden of nooit hun kolommen haalt tenzij ze er niet langer onderuit kunnen ( zoals bv. tijdens de recente busramp in Zwitserland).
Het is de hoogste tijd dat de VRM daar eens werk van maakt. Want al hebben we geen Vlaamse Berlusconi ( de economische benadering) we hebben wel een Vlaamse Murdoch ( de journalistieke benadering), en al hebben de excessen op dat vlak in Vlaanderen gelukkig nog de schandelijke en zelfs criminele proporties niet bereikt zoals in het wereldrijk van de machtigste man van de wereld Rupert Murdoch, de VRM ( en alle professionele betrokkenen) doet er beter aan het te voorkomen dan het te
moeten genezen. Ik raad hen overigens aan de soap over de wandaden van Murdoch en zijn kornuiten te volgen via de dagelijkse Media Guardian Briefing (info@mail.guardian.co.uk), gratis en voor niks. The Guardian is overigens de Britse kwaliteitskrant die zich meer dan 10 jaar lang vastbeet in de wansmakelijke journalistieke praktijken van de Murdoch-tabloids News of the World (intussen opgedoekt ) en The Sun en die uiteindelijk voor zijn uitstekende en volgehouden onderzoeksjournalistiek beloond werd en daarmee het nut en de noodzaak van de pers als Vierde Macht in een democratische rechtsstaat op meesterlijke wijze geillustreerd heeft.

lees meer
news
kunstschilder Frans Minnaert (1929-2011) overleden. R.I.P.
Edited: 201101180901
Hij nam deel aan de Biënnale van Venetië in 1974. Ere-directeur Academie Beeldende Kunsten Anderlecht.
News
Guy Verhofstadt wordt bestuurder bij Exmar
Edited: 201004230736
Ex-premier Guy Verhofstadt wordt voorgedragen als bestuurder bij de gastankerrederij Exmar. Dat blijkt uit de oproeping voor de algemene vergadering van het bedrijf. Verhofstadt wordt voorgedragen als onafhankelijke bestuurder voor een periode van drie jaar.

Verhofstadt zal in de Rvb van Exmar zetelen naast onder meer ex-Tractebelbaas Philippe Bodson (voorzitter), textielondernemer Philippe Vlerick en François Gillet (Sofina).

Verhofstadt is niet de eerste ex-premier die bestuurder wordt. Jean-Luc Dehaene nam al een aantal mandaten op. Hij is voorzitter bij Dexia en bestuurder bij Thrombogenics, Lotus Bakeries, Umicore en AB InBev. Voormalig premier Mark Eyskens was een tijd voorzitter van chemiebedrijf UCB.(belga)

Het wordt stilaan tijd om de mandaten in kaart te brengen.

gronddeal Madagascar-Daewoo opgezegd
Edited: 20090318
Madagascar scraps Daewoo farm deal

By Tom Burgis in Antananarivo and Javier Blas in London



Published: March 18 2009 13:16 | Last updated: March 18 2009 20:20



South Korea’s project to transform Madagascar into its breadbasket, branded by some as neo-colonial, came to an abrupt end on Wednesday when the Indian Ocean island’s new president said he would shelve the plan.



Daewoo Logistic’s deal to lease a huge tract of farmland, half the size of Belgium, to grow food crops to send back to Seoul was a source of popular resentment that contributed to the fall of Marc Ravalomanana, the former president.



EDITOR’S CHOICE

Malagasy regime aims to seize the day - Mar-20African Union suspends Madagascar - Mar-20Andry Rajoelina, who was declared president by the military and constitutional court after months of demonstrations and who will be formally sworn in on Saturday, said that Daewoo’s plan was “cancelled.



“We are not against the idea of working with investors, but if we want to sell or rent out land, we have to change the constitution, you have to consult the people, Mr Rajoelina said in Antananarivo, the country’s capital. “So at this hour the deal is cancelled.



The revelation of the plan was the catalyst that turned smouldering dissatisfaction with the rule of Mr Ravalomanana into the rebellion that ousted him on Tuesday.



Once early prospecting of land became public, outrage at the president’s perceived use of political office to further his own business interests changed gear, said a well-connected Malagasy, who asked not to be named. “It was the news that said Daewoo expected to pay nothing for the land that accelerated the [political] trouble, he added.



Mr Rajoelina’s announcement came hours after Daewoo officials said they would press ahead with the project regardless of the political situation. Richard Shin, an official at Daewoo, said the company was surprised by the growing political risks in the Indian Ocean island and by the drop in agricultural commodities prices, but added: “We want to continue the project, whether the government changes or not.



Daewoo’s plan became the most high-profile of several similar smaller foreign agricultural investments in Africa. The race to outsource production is a sign of how countries, particularly in the Middle East but also in Asia, are seeking food security after last year’s food crisis, which saw record prices for staples such as wheat and rice, and the imposition of export restrictions.



The South Korean company initially said it had secured a lease for 99 years for about 1.3m hectares and expected to pay nothing as a rent, although it later said it was still in negotiations with Mr Ravalomanana’s former government.



The company floated the plan in January to lease 900,000 hectares of land with infrastructure investments worth $2bn (€1.5bn, £1.4bn). The plan suggested Daewoo could create up to 45,000 jobs.



Seoul’s long-term target was to import up to half its corn needs, cutting its dependence on the US, Argentina and Brazil. South Korea is the world’s fourth largest corn importer.



Additional reporting by Jung-a Song in Seoul

Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2009
eigendom religieuze groeperingen struikelblok voor Turkse toetreding EU, zegt Dr. Otmar Oehring
Edited: 200512131477
This article was published by F18News on: 13 December 2005



TURKEY: Religious communities need fundamental reform of Constitution

By Dr. Otmar Oehring, head of the human rights office of Missio





Long-running attempts to improve the Law on Foundations are not the way to introduce true individual and collective religious freedom in Turkey, argues Otmar Oehring of the German Catholic charity Missio http://www.missio-aachen.de/menschen-kulturen/themen/menschenrechte . Only some religious minorities are allowed such foundations, while foundations that do exist are subject to intrusive government interference. In this personal commentary for Forum 18 News Service http://www.forum18.org, Dr Oehring maintains that Turkey needs instead to tackle the fundamental problem of the lack of religious freedom. This can best be done, he contends, by both changing the Constitution and bringing in an accompanying law to concretely introduce the full individual and collective religious freedom rights spelled out in the European Convention on Human Rights.





Turkey's Law on Foundations plays a central role in the country's religious freedom situation, as it directly affects religious communities' ownership of property. Proposed amendments to the Law – which includes provisions governing "community foundations" for non-Muslim religious/ethnic communities – are facing a tortuous process. It is not even clear if the Ankara parliament will ever approve them. First discussed in late 2002 under the government led by Abdullah Gul in response to pressure from the European Union to bring the Turkey's legal provisions into line with European practices on human rights, discussion has continued under the government of Recep Tayyip Erdogan.



As it became increasingly clear that it would be impossible to streamline the existing Law on Foundations, a draft of a new Law was finally prepared including provisions governing "community foundations" for non-Muslim religious communities. But once again these provisions do not satisfy the concerned groups as the amendments they proposed have not been included. Meanwhile the draft was sent to the relevant commission of parliament in May 2005, which was due to decide on the draft before summer this year. This however has not happened up to now.



The changes being proposed would be important for those non-Muslim communities which have "community foundations", such as the Armenian Catholic, Armenian Apostolic, Armenian Protestant, Bulgarian Orthodox, Chaldean Catholic, Georgian Catholic, Greek Catholic, Greek Melkite Orthodox, Jewish, Syrian Catholic, Syrian Orthodox and Syrian Protestant. In theory any improvement to the Foundations Law would allow them to keep the property they currently hold (often rather precariously) and recover property taken from them over the past seventy years.



Although in the past there were several hundred such foundations for non-Muslim communities owning thousands of properties, the government's Directorate-General for Foundations now says 160 are recognised by the state (compared to the 208 recognised by the state in 1948). The fate of the remainder and the property they administered remains unclear.



The existing Foundations Law is limited as it covers only some non-Muslim minority communities. The Roman Catholic Church, Protestant Churches (whether historical Churches or free Evangelical congregations), Jehovah's Witnesses, Baha'is and other non-Muslim groups have no such foundations – and are unlikely to be allowed to have any.



Two examples illustrate the complexity of the current situation. The Syrian Catholic Church does not have a community foundation (cemaat vakif) in Istanbul but a foundation in accordance with civil law. This had never before been seen in Turkey, because at the time it was founded, a foundation with a religious purpose could not be set up (see F18News 12 October 2005 http://www.forum18.org/Archive.php?article_id=670). So Syrian Catholics in Turkey now have one foundation in Istanbul founded under the Civil Code, and a number of community foundations in the south-east of Turkey.



In December 2000 the Altintepe Protestant Church in Istanbul gained foundation status, which was confirmed by the Supreme Court. However this is not to the liking of the Directorate-General for Foundations, which cannot overturn a Supreme Court decision to grant foundation status, but which has since blocked foundation applications from at least two other Protestant churches.



Yet more fundamentally than the individual cases of some communities, I believe that trying to change the Foundation Law – even by trying to include at least all non-Muslim religious communities within its scope – is not the way to go to introduce full religious freedom into Turkey. The whole legal framework governing religion has to be changed.



Most crucially, the country's Constitution needs to be changed. At present, its Article 24 covering religion is so narrowly drawn that it protects only the right to worship. It includes no guarantees about the freedom to change one's faith or to join together with others in religious communities. No guarantee is given of religious communities' rights to organise themselves freely as they choose, to own property directly, to have legal recognition or to train their own personnel.



The Constitution must include a paragraph in line with Article 9 of the European Convention on Human Rights (ECHR), which guarantees full religious freedom. As the article notes, this right includes freedom for individuals to change religion or belief "and freedom, either alone or in community with others and in public or private, to manifest his religion or belief, in worship, teaching, practice and observance". As well as a constitutional change guaranteeing full individual and collective religious freedom rights, a law is needed explaining this in practice.



The European Commission, in its recent Proposal for the Accession Partnership 2005, specified the following measures for Turkey to take:



"Freedom of religion



– Adopt a law comprehensively addressing all the difficulties faced by non-Muslim religious minorities and communities in line with the relevant European standards.



Suspend all sales or confiscation of properties which belong or belonged to non-Muslim religious community foundations by the competent authorities pending the adoption of the above law.



– Adopt and implement provisions concerning the exercise of freedom of thought, conscience and religion by all individuals and religious communities in line with the European Convention on Human Rights and taking into account the relevant recommendations of the Council of Europe's Commission against Racism and Intolerance.



– Establish conditions for the functioning of these communities, in line with the practice of Member States. This includes legal and judicial protection of the communities, their members and their assets, teaching, appointing and training of clergy, and the enjoyment of property rights in line with Protocol No 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights." (See http://europa.eu.int/comm/enlargement/report_2005/pdf/package_ii/com_559_final_en_tr_partnership.pdf)



If the Constitution was changed and a law was passed that together guaranteed full individual and collective religious freedom rights, it would be very simple to grant religious communities and their entities legal status (something which does not exist at present). There would then no longer be a need for the peculiar arrangements of the Foundations Law.



The government has been reluctant to resolve existing problems caused by the regulations governing community foundations, as it fears it might have to return all the properties seized from Christian and Jewish community foundations since the 1930s. A wave of seizures occurred after 1936, when an inventory of property was drawn up, and again after a controversial 1974 Court of Appeal ruling that all property acquired by community foundations since 1936 was illegally owned. Many of these confiscated properties are now being used by the state for other purposes, but many more have been sold by the state. Some of these seized properties were places of worship, but most were community-owned schools, hospitals or land whose income supported the communities.



The government cannot kill off the proposed amendments to the Foundations Law, as it would risk killing off any chance of moving forward on EU accession. But the main problem remains that the state is unwilling to have to return all these properties and fears that, if properties in the hands of third-parties could not realistically be returned, it would have to offer perhaps substantial compensation. It fears any amended Foundations Law might force it to do so.



Although Turkish-based and international lawyers working with Turkey's non-Muslim religious communities are looking at the proposed amendments and pointing out legal problems with the current draft, they also argue strongly that this is dealing with the wrong issue. They complain that the proposed changes are still predicated on the myth that such foundations only existed because of the 1923 Treaty of Lausanne and that only those communities which had foundations then can have them now.



Because religious communities in themselves cannot get legal status (in theory the Law on Associations does allow it, though courts are unlikely to accept this in practice), they cannot own any property. Someone who does not exist cannot own property. As long as religious communities like the Alevi Muslims, Roman Catholics, Protestants, Baha'is and Jehovah's Witnesses have no legal status they cannot organise themselves administratively (they cannot even run bank accounts), and this even impacts on them spiritually. Moreover, the state can interfere at any time.



A further problem with the question of recognition of churches or religious groups a
Charles E. Fraser
30 maart 2005: L. Fritz Gruber, “ Mr Photography” overleden. R.I.P.
Edited: 200503308662
Professor Dr. hc L.Fritz Gruber was an initiator and creative genius of photography. He was the friend of famous photographers from August Sander and Ansel Adams to Sebastiano Salgado, from Man Ray to Cecil Beaton, from Henri Cartier Bresson to Bob Capa. He was the friend of photographic editors and publishers from Arthur Dalladay to Andor Kraszna Krausz , Bert Kepler and Roger Montel.

L.Fritz Gruber was born in Cologne on 7th June 1908 and went to School and University there. In 1932 he edited the newspaper Koelner Kurier which was closed down by the authorities and made him emigrate to London where he honed his journalistic skills, until just before the outbreak of war in 1939, when his sick mother recalled him to Germany, where he was trapped by the war, in which he was not eligible to fight, as a result of childhood illness.

During the war he was a studio portrait photographer and had a document-photocopying business in Minden. 1950, to compliment the technical and industrial trade-fair “Photokina”, he initiated the famous Photokina thematic cultural exhibitions, and created 300 in all until 1980. His innovations are countless, he got architects and designers, from Chargesheimer and Michael Sanders to Manfred Heiting and Swoboda to style his exhibitions and he produced their resplendent catalogues, which are now rare, historic, collectors’ items.. He travelled the world to bring new and old applications and manifestations of photography to his exhibitions and met and befriended the great and famous photographers in America, Europe and Asia. I met L. Fritz Gruber at the first international Photokina in 1951. He showed me around his exhibitions and then he came back to London for me to show him around my Festival of Britain. Since then we were best friends for 54 years and travelled and worked together.

He started to collect photographs when he was still at School and his vast, wonderful Gruber-Collection is now the pride of the Ludwig Museum in Cologne. In the 1950s he initiated and made films of still photographs; made early films for TV about photography and photographers, which broke new ground then and inspired the creation of photographic galleries and museums, and he initiated the DGPh, the German Photographic Society.

After his retirement from photokina in 1980, at the age of 72, he continued, right to the end, together with his wife Renate, his dynamic and restless quest for photography, writing articles, producing books and exhibitions, and collecting new and young photographer friends and their photographs. His London years had transformed him into an English gentleman. He was always of striking appearance, immaculately and fashionably dressed, and thus was a favourite subject for photographers, press and TV and was much honoured by them.



L. Fritz Gruber died in Cologne on 30th March 2005. The photogenic light that had illuminated and sparkled up his 96 years through, with and for photography, has finally flickered out. He is survived by his wife Renate and his daughters Anneli and Bettina, the video-artist.



news
25 januari 2005: VUM lanceert pulpkrant 'Espresso'
Edited: 200501250913
Eerste nummer van dit nieuwe dagblad van de Standaardgroep/VUM, tabloid, 24 pp. Datum: 25/1/2005.
Ondertitel: 'compact nieuws, scherpe opinies'.
Deze krant werd eind juli 2005 stopgezet. Onbegrijpelijk dat de VUM zich - na het mislukte '24 uur'-avontuur - opnieuw liet vangen aan de uitgave van een pulpkrant.
VVL/BBDO en De Kie rijven communicatiebudget VDAB binnen
Edited: 200303001987
bron: newsletter 'VDAB-Communicatie' maart 2003. In deze newsletter wordt uitdrukkelijk vermeld dat De Kie Ackermans & van Haaren als aandeelhouder heeft.
Tessens Lucas (foto)
21 september 1984: Dirk Verhofstadt en Victor Claeys aan Beauport Park Hotel in Hastings tijdens bezoek aan TV-expo in Brighton. Studiereis voor de Vlaamse Media Maatschappij (VMM/VMMa)
Edited: 198409211261



Enkele weken later gebeurde dit:
The Brighton hotel bombing was a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) assassination attempt against the top tier of the British government that occurred on 12 October 1984 at the Grand Brighton Hotel in Brighton, England. A long-delay time bomb was planted in the hotel by IRA member Patrick Magee, with the purpose of killing Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher and her cabinet, who were staying at the hotel for the Conservative Party conference.[2] Although Thatcher narrowly escaped injury, five people were killed including a sitting Conservative MP, and 31 were injured.
Patrick Magee had stayed in the hotel under the pseudonym Roy Walsh during the weekend of 14–17 September 1984. During his stay, he planted the bomb under the bath in his room, number 629, one floor above Thatcher's suite for the conference.[2] The device was fitted with a long-delay timer made from videocassette recorder components and a Memo Park Timer safety device. IRA mole Sean O'Callaghan claimed that 20 lb (9 kg) of Frangex (gelignite) was used. The device was described as a 'small bomb by IRA standards' by a contemporary news report and may have avoided detection by sniffer dogs by being wrapped in cling film to mask the smell of the explosive. (wiki)
De bom lag er dus toen wij het Grand Brighton Hotel bezochten voor de expo.
9 augustus 1982: bomaanslag in joods kwartier Parijs: 6 doden, 22 gewonden
Edited: 198208091482
L'enquête s'annonce difficile. Il n'y a pas de revendication, peu de pistes, des témoignages souvent contradictoires. Déjà à l'époque, la France résonnait des soubresauts du conflit au Proche-orient, des luttes opposant Israéliens contre arabes, ou arabes contre arabes. Deux ans plus tôt, un autre attentat avait tué quatre personnes devant une synagogue rue Copernic.
Les regards se dirigent vers le Liban, où l'armée israélienne campe aux portes de Beyrouth. Policiers et magistrats enquêtent à l'étranger, notamment en Allemagne, en Italie. Ils soupçonnent le Fatah-Conseil révolutionnaire d'Abou Nidal, un groupe palestinien dissident de l'OLP.
Mais les investigations ne connaissent pas d'avancée notable, hormis la découverte un jour d'une des armes de l'attentat dans un bosquet du bois de Boulogne, à Paris. Aujourd'hui, l'instruction, menée depuis des années par le juge Bruguière, court toujours.

Vingt ans après, la rue des Rosiers a gardé son âme, son ambiance de carte postale, ses touristes et ses falafels, mais nul n'a oublié l'attentat. Jo Goldenberg a passé la main, mais continue de travailler rue des Rosiers pour la société de produits alimentaires d'Europe centrale qu'il a fondée. Sur la façade du restaurant, une plaque rappelle les victimes du 9 août 1982.

http://www.tf1.fr/news/france/0,,932764,00.html (20031006)
BOONE Luk prof. dr
Ophefmakende falingen in de perswereld, in: Res Publica, Bundel XXI, nr 2, 1979, pp. 229-242
Edited: 197900004783
In dit artikel peilt Boone naar de politieke achtergronden van de falingen, cq. reddingen, van De Standaard en Volksgazet. Hij verwijst ook terloops naar het verwijnen van 'De Krant' in maart 1976.


Diegenen die de geschiedenis schrijven van de naoorlogse Nederlands^
talige Belgische dagbladpers, zullen ongetwijfeld de tweede helften van
de jaren vijftig en zeventig als terzake bijzonder woelig weerhouden.
De periode tussen 1955 en 1959 zal geboekstaafd blijven als het tijdperk
van de concentraties. In 1957 besloten Het Laatste Nieuws en De Nieuwe
Gazet te gaan samenwerken. Twee jaar later kocht de Standaard-groep
de Gentse titels De Gentenaar en De Landwacht op.
De jaren zestig zouden het decennium van de stabilisering kunnen
worden genoemd. Het enige meldenswaardige feit is de oprichting, begin
1968, van de Financieel-Ekonomische Tijd.
De tweede helft van de jaren zeventig zöu men als titel de ophef
makende faillissementen kunnen meegeven. Begin maart 1976 verdween
de begin oktober 1975 opgerichte De Krant. Deze titel diende zich aan
als een onafhankelijk, objectief, Vlaams, zelfstandig, niet partijgebonden
dagblad, dat recht naar de mensen toeschrijft, in een klare, duidelijke taal,
met een vinnige new. sound en een fris, modern uitzicht . Zoals steller
elders reeds betoogde, verbijsterde het eerste nummer de minst kritische
waarnemers. Het betrof, in feite, een tabloïd zonder enige oorspronke
lijkheid die het midden hield tussen de Londense avondkranten en de
meest stofferige provinciebladen. (...). De langzame doodstrijd van D?
Krant-eindigde in de grootste verwarring en in de financiële en morele
ontreddering van een groot aantal medewerkers... (1).
Deze faling was echter slechts een voorsmaak. In mei-juni 1976 ging de
prestigieuze Standaard-gtoep over de kop, en twee jaar later hield Volks
gazet definitief op met verschijnen.
(...)


Summary : Sensational failures in the newspaper industry.
In the post war history of the Dutch-language daily press in Belgium,
the late fifties, marked by a trend towards concentration, and the latter
part of the seventies, notorious by the bankrupties of several newspapers,
stand out as eras of turbulence. It is two particularly significant events
occurring during the latter period, i.c. the 1976 insolvency of the prestigeous
Standaard papers and that of Volksgazet two years later, which this article focuses upon. In his analysis of causes and suggested/chosen solutions, the author highlights the political rather than the economie dimension of the events and their aftermaths, given that each of the faïling neuwspapers — and hence their survival — mattered pólitically, i.c. to the Christian Democrats and the Socialist party respectivély. Central to this is the question of the measures considered/taken by the Belgian c.q. Flemish /pólitical authorities for having
the newspapers. The course of events in each case is examined and the
differences in terms of causal factors and measures taken/omitted are
noted. In the final analysis, the question arises as to the relationship
between certain political figures or groups on the one hand, and government
agencies, which both Volksgazet and particularly the Standaard titles were heavily indebted to, on the other hand.




nws
9 mei 1978: lijk Aldo Moro gevonden in auto te Rome
Edited: 197805092500
May 9, while Fanfani argues the case against a hard line stance, news arrives that Moro has been found dead in a car in a street midway between the headquarters of the Christian Democrats and the Communists. May 10, autopsy proves that moro was never drugged or mistreated. May 13, 1978 a funeral ceremony is held for Aldo Moro.

http://www.uwgb.edu/galta/333/moro.htm (20031112)



Noot LT: De ontvoering van AM door de Rode Brigades was een van de grootste trauma's uit de Italiaanse politieke geschiedenis en zeker voor de Democrazia Cristiana. In zijn politieke uitwerking volgen zulke daden steeds de logica van de cirkel: extreem geweld van ultra-links dient de belangen van ultra-rechts en vice versa; de politionele, politieke en juridische behandeling van zulke zaken is dan ook steeds een afwegen van belangen en zgn. 'fouten' in de afhandeling of in het onderzoek zijn soms niets anders dan een gewilde manipulatie van de publieke opinie.
LASSWELL Harold D. (1902-1978)
"Propaganda is the expression of opinions or actions carried out deliberately by individuals or groups with a view to influence the opinions or actions of other individuals or groups for predetermined ends through psychological manipulations."
Edited: 197800004578
Lasswell made these contributions to the field of communication study:

His five-questions model of communication led to the emphasis in communication study on determining effects. Lasswell’s contemporary, Paul F. Lazarsfeld, did even more to crystallize this focus on communication effects.
He pioneered in content analysis methods, virtually inventing the methodology of qualitative and quantitative measurement of communication messages (propaganda messages and newspaper editorials, for example).
His study of political and wartime propaganda represented an important early type of communication study. The word propaganda later gained a negative connotation and is not used much today, although there is even more political propaganda. Propaganda analysis has been absorbed into the general body of communication research.
He introduced Freudian psychoanalytic theory to the social sciences in America. Lasswell integrated Freudian theory with political analysis, as in his psychoanalytic study of political leaders. He applied Freud's id-ego-superego via content analysis to political science problems. In essence, he utilized intraindividual Freudian theory at the societal level.
He helped create the policy sciences, an interdisciplinary movement to integrate social science knowledge with public action. The social sciences, however, generally resisted this attempt at integration and application to public policy problem.
src: wiki 20180329
8 april 1965: Spécial (WBF) gelanceerd
Edited: 196504082398
Brussels weekblad van Pierre Davister. Davister was voormalig redacteur van Pourquoi Pas? Grote rivaliteit tussen Raymond Naegels van PP? en Davister. Pan stond aan de zijde van PP? Davister werd door Pan 'Bwana Matabiche' genoemd.

Bron: STEPHANY 2002: 216

Zie ook: "Mobutu returned to civilian life just as decolonization began to seem possible. His newspaper articles had brought him to the attention of Pierre Davister, a Belgian editor of the Léopoldville paper L’Avenir. At that time, a European patron was of enormous benefit to an ambitious Congolese; under Davister’ s tutelage, Mobutu became an editorial writer for the new African weekly, Actualités Africaines. Davister later would provide valuable services by giving favorable coverage to the Mobutu regime as editor of his own Belgian magazine, Spécial."

Bron: http://www.congo2000.net/english/history/Mobutu1_govt.html

zie ook: "En février 1950, il est enrôlé à la Force publique et envoyé à l'école centrale de Luluabourg (Kananga) pour suivre la formation de secrétaire-comptable dont il obtient le brevet de en 1952. Troisième de sa promotion, il est affecté en 1953 à l'Etat-Major de la Force Publique à Kinshasa. Là, il collabore à la rédaction du journal de l'armée "Sango ya bisu" et, bientôt, à celle de l'Avenir colonial belge, appelé à devenir plus raisonnablement l'Avenir. En effet, le 5 janvier 1956, la direction de ce journal décide d'ouvrir ses colonnes aux Congolais dans les "Actualités Africaines" et fait parître certains articles signés d'un certain "De Banzy", qui n'est autre que le jeune Mobutu. L'utilisation du pseudonyme s'explique par le fait qu'un soldat n'avait pas le droit d'écrire dans un journal civil. de Banzy dérive de Banzyville, son territoire d'origine, actuellement Mobayi Mbongo.Libéré de ses engagements militaires à la fin de son terme le 31 décembre 1956, il entre dans le comité de rédaction des "Actualités Africaines" avec la recommandation de Pierre Davister. il rencontre pour la première fois Patrice Lumumba en juillet 1956 dans les bureaux des "Actualités Africaines". (http://www.congonline.com/Politiq/mobutu.htm)
aanslagen OAS: 726 acties tegen journalisten, linkse universitairen, ...
Edited: 196210137845
REMOND 1988: 599



Bibliografie van OAS:

BOOKS, (DOCUMENTS, REPORTS, ETC.)



BITTERLIN, Lucien. Histoire des Barbouzes. Paris, France: Editions du Palais Royal, (La Vérité Difficile), 1972. 271+[16] p., ill., ports., facsims., 19 cm.

Bitterlin, Lucien - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962--Personal Narratives - Mouvement pour la Communauté (MPC).

LC 72321652; BF 72012680.



__________. Nous étions tous des terroristes: l'histoire des "barbouzes" contre l'O.A.S. en Algérie. (Préface de Louis Terrenoire; Postface de Georges Montaron). Paris, France: Editions du Témoignage Chrétien, 1983. 335+[16] p., ill., ports., facsims., 21 cm.

Originally published: Paris, France: Editions du Palais Royal, 1972.

Bitterlin, Lucien - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962--Personal Narratives - Mouvement pour la Communauté (MPC).

ISBN 2900016029; LC 83176528; BF 83010790.



BOCCA, Geoffrey. The secret army. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall, [1968]. xvi+268 p., illus., ports., bibliogr. p. 254-256, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète.

LC 68019837; M-46.



BUCHARD, Robert. Organisation Armée Secrète. [Vol. 1]: février - 14 décembre 1961. [Vol. 2]: 15 décembre 1961 - 10 juillet 1962. Paris, France: Albin Michel, (Aujourd'hui), 1963. 2 Vols. of 203+[4] and 213 p., ill., 18 cm.

France - Algeria - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism, History, 1961-1962.

BF 63009409; S-2326; B-139.



__________. Organisation Armée Secrète, février 1961 - juillet 1962. Paris, France: Editions J'ai Lu, (L'Aventure Aujourd'hui. Leur Aventure; 278), 1972. 320 p., 17 cm.

France - Algeria - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism, History, 1961-1962.

BF 72008852.



BUSCIA, Gilles.; ZEHR, Patrice. Au nom de l'O.A.S.: objectif Pompidou. (Préface du Colonel Argoud). Nice, France: Editions Alain Lefeuvre, (Témoignages), 1980. 242+[32] p., ill., ports., facsims., 24 cm.

France - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Pompidou, Georges, 1911-1974 - Assassination Attempt - Buscia, Gilles, 1938-.... - Diaries, memories.

ISBN 2902639414; LC 81118572; BF 80015437.



CARRERAS, Fernand. L'accord F.L.N. - O.A.S.: des négociations secrètes au cessez-le-feu. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (L'Histoire que nous vivons), 1967. 253 p., ills., ports., 21 cm.

Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) - Jabhat al-Tahrir al-Qawmi - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

LC 67093109; BF 67005830; M-1819.



CAVIGLIOLI, François.; PONTAUT, Jean-Marie. La grande cible, 1961-1964: les secrets de l'O.A.S. Paris, France: Mercure de France; Paris-Match, 1972. 261 p., 21 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt, 1961-1964 - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 72012683.



CURUTCHET, Jean-Marie. Je veux la tourmente. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (Vécu), [1973]. 334+[16] p., ill., documentary evidence pp. 261-321, bibliogr. pp. 329-[330], 24 cm.

Curutchet, Jean-Marie, 1930-.... - Organisation Armée Secrète--Sources - Comité National de la Résistance (CNR)--Sources.

LC 73173198; BF 73011493.



DELARUE, Jacques. L'O.A.S. contre de Gaulle. Paris, France: Fayard, ©1981. 312+[32] p., ill., facsims., ports., 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213009694; LC 81123231; BF 81008033.



__________. L'O.A.S. contre de Gaulle. [Nouvelle édition]. Paris, France: Fayard, 1994. 339+[32] p., ill., facsims., ports., 24 cm.

Originally published: Paris, France: Fayard, 1981.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213592764.



__________.; RUDELLE, Odile. [eds.]. L'Attentat du Petit-Clamart: vers la révision de la Constitution. Paris, France: La Documentation Française, (Les Médias et l'Evénement), 1990. 96 p., (+8 folded sheets of newspapers from 1963-1963), ill., bibliogr. p. 96, 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt, 1962 - Bastien-Thiry, Jean-Marie, 1927-1963--Trials, litigation, etc. - Trials (Conspiracy)--France--Paris - Offenses against Heads of State--France - Mass Media--Political Aspects--France.

ISBN 2110024038; LC 92134796.



DEMARET, Pierre.; PLUME, Christian. Objectif de Gaulle. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (L'Histoire que Nous Vivons), 1973. 426+[32] p., ill., ports., facsim., 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 74000373;



__________.; __________. Target de Gaulle: the thirty-one attempts to assassinate the General. (Translated from the French by Richard Barry). London, G.B.: Secker and Warburg, 1974. xvi+294+[8] p., ill., ports., 24 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0436376156; LC 75313962.



__________.; __________. Target De Gaulle: the true story of the 31 attempts on the life of the French President. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Dial Press, 1975. 293 p., 24 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0803785143; LC 74020658; M-482; S-5398.



__________.; __________. Target de Gaulle: the thirty-one attempts to assassinate the General. (Translated from the French by Richard Barry). London, G.B.: Corgi, 1976. 410+[8] p., ill., ports., 18 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0552101435; LC 77367410.



DÉROULÈDE, Arnaud. OAS: étude d'une organisation clandestine. Hélette, France: Curutchet, 1997. 350 p., ill., bibliogr. p. [340]-350, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2904348840; LC 98121521.



GAUCHON, Pascal.; BUISSON, Patrick. OAS: histoire de la résistance française en Algérie. (Préface de Pierre Sergent). Bièvres, France: Jeune Pied-noir, ©1984. 168 p., ill., 32 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

LC 85174413.



GAUVIN, Jean. Le procès Vanuxem. Paris, France: Editions Saint-Just, [1963]. 283 p., 19 cm.

Vanuxem, Paul Fidèle Félicien, 1904-.... - Gingembre, Maurice Henri Jean Marie, 1920-.... - Le Barbier de Blignières, Hervé Paul Marie, 1914-.... - Terrorism--France--Trials, 1963 - France. Cour de Sûreté de l'Etat.

LC 66032089.



GUIBERT, Vincent. Les commandos Delta. Hélette, France: J. Curutchet, 2000. 304 p., ill., bibliography p. [275]-283, index, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète. Delta (Commandos) - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2912932262; LC 2001332854.



HARRISON, Alexander. Challenging De Gaulle: the O.A.S. and the counterrevolution in Algeria, 1954-1962. (Foreword by William Colby). New York, N.Y., U.S.A.; London, G.B.: Praeger, 1989. xxxi+192 p., ill., ports., bibliogr. pp. [165]-167, index, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0275927911; LC 88019008; BL 89037980.



HENISSART, Paul. Wolves in the city: the death of French Algeria. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Simon and Schuster, [1970]. 508 p., ills., ports., bibliography p. 483-485, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0671205137; LC 76101877; S-2340.



__________. Wolves in the city: the death of French Algeria. London, G.B.: Hart-Davis, 1971. 508 p., ills., ports., bibliography p. 483-485, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0246640022; LC 74862602.



JOURON, Patrick. Objectif, de Gaulle. [Orgères-en-Beauce, France]: CCRC, (Evénement et Action), 1986. 205 p., ill., bibliogr. p. 203, 22 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 87009292.



KAUFFER, Rémi. L'O.A.S.: histoire d'une organisation secrète. [Paris, France]: Fayard, 1986. 423 p., facsims., bibliogr., index, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213017263; LC 86214992.



LANCELOT, Marie-Thérèse. L'Organisation Armée secrète. [Vol. 1] Chronologie. [Vol. 2] Documents. [Paris, France]: Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, (Documents; 2), 1963. 2 Vols., 22x32 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History, 1945-1962.

LC 66091959.



Le procès de l'attentat du Petit-Clamart: compte-rendu sténographique. [Vol. 1]: Audiences du 28 janvier au 14 février. [Vol. 2]: Audiences du 15 février au 4 mars. Paris, France: Albin Michel, (Les Grands Procès Contemporains), 1963. 2 Vol. of 1019-iv p., 20 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt--France--Petit Clamart (City) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Trials--Terrorism, 1963.

BF 63006187.



Le procès du Petit-Clamart: exposé des faits, débats, dépositions, réquisitoire, plaidoiries, présentés par Yves-Frédéric Jaffré. Paris, France: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1963. 643 p., ill., 22 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt--France--Petit Clamart (City) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Trials--Terrorism, 1963.

BF 63011051.



L'O.A.S. et la presse française. Paris, France: Editions Galic, (L'Histoire au Jour le Jour; 1), [1962]. 158 p., bibliogr., 18 cm.

France - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism and the Media - Terrorism in the Press.

LC 64042941.



MORLAND.; BARANGE.; MARTINEZ. Histoire de l'Organisation de l'Armée Secrète. Paris, France: René Julliard, [1964]. 605 p., "annexes" p. [569]-605, 20 cm.

Morland, (Pseud.) - Barangé, (Pseud.) - Martinez, (Pseud.) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History, 1945-....

LC 67000030; BF 64013458; S-2353;
Hammarskjöld: aanslag ?
Edited: 196109177988
boven Noord-Rhodesië.

Over de mogelijkheid van een aanslag, lees:

CIA and MI5 linked to Hammarskjöld death

by MARLENE BURGER

Capetown: Documents the Truth Commission stumbled across linking South African agents to the airline death of UN chief Dag Hammarskjöld, also reveal that the project was hatched at the highest levels of the CIA and MI5.

The alleged plot to assassinate United Nations secretary general Dag Hammarskjöld 37 years ago was the brainchild of at least two British security agencies — MI5 and the Special Operations Executive — and the CIA, top-secret documents show.

For once, apartheid's dirty tricks brigade appears to have been falsely accused of involvement in the murder.

A series of messages between a commodore and a captain, whose names have been expunged by the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, point to a plot hatched on South African soil by a group which had access to vast amounts of money and the ability to muster mercenary forces to protect international investment in turbulent post-colonial Africa.

The messages, all on letterheads of the South Africa Institute for Maritime Research (SAIMR), cover the period from July 1960 to September 17 1961 — the day on which Hammarskjöld's aircraft crashed while approaching the airport at Ndola in the then Northern Rhodesia.

In addition to outlining Operation Celeste — the plan to get rid of the "troublesome" Hammarskjöld — the documents implicate the SAIMR and international intelligence agencies in the death of Patrice Lumumba, the pro-communist first president of the Congo. Lumumba was deposed in September 1960 and allegedly shot while escaping from custody in the breakaway province of Katanga in 1961.

The documents, found by a truth commission researcher investigating an apparently unrelated matter, implicate then CIA chief Allen Dulles in Operation Celeste. They also claim that the explosives used for the bomb that downed the aircraft were supplied by a Belgian mining conglomerate, Union Miniere. The company had extensive interests in copper-rich Katanga, and is known to have backed to Tshombe's use of mercenaries, including the group led by South Africa's Colonel "Mad Mike" Hoare.

The most damning report refers to a meeting between MI5, Special Operations Executive, the CIA and the SAIMR at which it was recorded that Dulles "agrees ... Dag is becoming troublesome and ... should be removed". According to the documents, Dulles "has promised full co-operation from his people ... Dag will be in Leopoldville on or about 12/9/61. The aircraft ferrying him will be a DC6 in the livery of [Swedish company] Transair."

The captain is ordered to "see that Leo airport [Leopoldville, now Kinshasa] as well as Elizabethville [now Lubumbashi] is covered by your people, as I want his removal to be handled more efficiently than was Patrice [Lumumba]".

The first message is dated July 12 1960, less than two weeks after the Congo became independent: “Head office is rather concerned with developments in the Congo, particularly the Haute Katanga, where it appears the local strongman Moise Tshombe, supported by Union Miniere, is planning a secession." The writer claims to "have it on good authority that the UNO [United Nations Organisation] will want to get its greedy paws on the province. He says he has been instructed to ask the captain "to send as many agents as you think would be needed to bolster Congo Red's unit in case of future problems".

Civil war broke out in the Congo four days after independence, and Tshombe announced Katanga's secession on July 11. The commodore records this in his next message, sent on July 15, the day UN troops arrived at Lumumba's request.

The next orders inform the captain: "Your contact with CIA is Dwight. He will be residing at Hotel Leopold II in Elizabethville from now until November 1 1961. The password is: ‘How is Celeste these days?' His response should be: 'She's recovering nicely apart from the cough.'"

Hammarskjöld's death appears to have been part of an attempt to prevent Katanga's mineral wealth from falling under communist control.

On September 14 1961, a message couriered to the SAIMR's offices in De Villiers Street, Johannesburg, recorded: "DC6 aircraft bearing Transair livery is parked at Leo to be used for transport of subject. Our technician has orders to plant 6lb TNT in the wheelbay with contact detonator to activate as wheels are retracted on taking off."

An earlier message records that "Union Miniere has offered to provide logistic or other support. We have told them to have 6lb of TNT at all possible locations with detonators, electrical contacts and wiring, batteries, etc."

A report dated September 17 records: "Device failed on take-off, and the aircraft crashed a few hours later as it prepared to land." An official inquiry blamed pilot error.

The documents have been dismissed as fakes by a former Swedish diplomat, and both MI5 and the CIA have denied any involvement in Hammarskjöld's death. However, they bear a striking resemblance to other documents emanating from the SAIMR seven years ago, when it was headed by self-styled commodore Keith Maxwell-Annandale and forged links with both South Africa's military intelligence and the National Intelligence Services. These documents show the SAIMR masterminded the abortive 1981 attempt to depose Seychelles president Albert René. It was also behind a successful 1990 coup in Somalia.

Source : Electronic Mail&Guardian, August 28, 1998. http://www.mg.co.za/mg/news/

http://southmovement.alphalink.com.au/southnews/980829-truth.html

zie ook SPAAK 1969: 246
OAS opgericht - bronnen
Edited: 196102117879
OAS = Organisation Armée Secrète

BOOKS, (DOCUMENTS, REPORTS, ETC.)



BITTERLIN, Lucien. Histoire des Barbouzes. Paris, France: Editions du Palais Royal, (La Vérité Difficile), 1972. 271+[16] p., ill., ports., facsims., 19 cm.

Bitterlin, Lucien - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962--Personal Narratives - Mouvement pour la Communauté (MPC).

LC 72321652; BF 72012680.



__________. Nous étions tous des terroristes: l'histoire des "barbouzes" contre l'O.A.S. en Algérie. (Préface de Louis Terrenoire; Postface de Georges Montaron). Paris, France: Editions du Témoignage Chrétien, 1983. 335+[16] p., ill., ports., facsims., 21 cm.

Originally published: Paris, France: Editions du Palais Royal, 1972.

Bitterlin, Lucien - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962--Personal Narratives - Mouvement pour la Communauté (MPC).

ISBN 2900016029; LC 83176528; BF 83010790.



BOCCA, Geoffrey. The secret army. Englewood Cliffs, N.J., U.S.A.: Prentice-Hall, [1968]. xvi+268 p., illus., ports., bibliogr. p. 254-256, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète.

LC 68019837; M-46.



BUCHARD, Robert. Organisation Armée Secrète. [Vol. 1]: février - 14 décembre 1961. [Vol. 2]: 15 décembre 1961 - 10 juillet 1962. Paris, France: Albin Michel, (Aujourd'hui), 1963. 2 Vols. of 203+[4] and 213 p., ill., 18 cm.

France - Algeria - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism, History, 1961-1962.

BF 63009409; S-2326; B-139.



__________. Organisation Armée Secrète, février 1961 - juillet 1962. Paris, France: Editions J'ai Lu, (L'Aventure Aujourd'hui. Leur Aventure; 278), 1972. 320 p., 17 cm.

France - Algeria - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism, History, 1961-1962.

BF 72008852.



BUSCIA, Gilles.; ZEHR, Patrice. Au nom de l'O.A.S.: objectif Pompidou. (Préface du Colonel Argoud). Nice, France: Editions Alain Lefeuvre, (Témoignages), 1980. 242+[32] p., ill., ports., facsims., 24 cm.

France - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Pompidou, Georges, 1911-1974 - Assassination Attempt - Buscia, Gilles, 1938-.... - Diaries, memories.

ISBN 2902639414; LC 81118572; BF 80015437.



CARRERAS, Fernand. L'accord F.L.N. - O.A.S.: des négociations secrètes au cessez-le-feu. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (L'Histoire que nous vivons), 1967. 253 p., ills., ports., 21 cm.

Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) - Jabhat al-Tahrir al-Qawmi - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

LC 67093109; BF 67005830; M-1819.



CAVIGLIOLI, François.; PONTAUT, Jean-Marie. La grande cible, 1961-1964: les secrets de l'O.A.S. Paris, France: Mercure de France; Paris-Match, 1972. 261 p., 21 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt, 1961-1964 - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 72012683.



CURUTCHET, Jean-Marie. Je veux la tourmente. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (Vécu), [1973]. 334+[16] p., ill., documentary evidence pp. 261-321, bibliogr. pp. 329-[330], 24 cm.

Curutchet, Jean-Marie, 1930-.... - Organisation Armée Secrète--Sources - Comité National de la Résistance (CNR)--Sources.

LC 73173198; BF 73011493.



DELARUE, Jacques. L'O.A.S. contre de Gaulle. Paris, France: Fayard, ©1981. 312+[32] p., ill., facsims., ports., 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213009694; LC 81123231; BF 81008033.



__________. L'O.A.S. contre de Gaulle. [Nouvelle édition]. Paris, France: Fayard, 1994. 339+[32] p., ill., facsims., ports., 24 cm.

Originally published: Paris, France: Fayard, 1981.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213592764.



__________.; RUDELLE, Odile. [eds.]. L'Attentat du Petit-Clamart: vers la révision de la Constitution. Paris, France: La Documentation Française, (Les Médias et l'Evénement), 1990. 96 p., (+8 folded sheets of newspapers from 1963-1963), ill., bibliogr. p. 96, 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt, 1962 - Bastien-Thiry, Jean-Marie, 1927-1963--Trials, litigation, etc. - Trials (Conspiracy)--France--Paris - Offenses against Heads of State--France - Mass Media--Political Aspects--France.

ISBN 2110024038; LC 92134796.



DEMARET, Pierre.; PLUME, Christian. Objectif de Gaulle. Paris, France: Robert Laffont, (L'Histoire que Nous Vivons), 1973. 426+[32] p., ill., ports., facsim., 24 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 74000373;



__________.; __________. Target de Gaulle: the thirty-one attempts to assassinate the General. (Translated from the French by Richard Barry). London, G.B.: Secker and Warburg, 1974. xvi+294+[8] p., ill., ports., 24 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0436376156; LC 75313962.



__________.; __________. Target De Gaulle: the true story of the 31 attempts on the life of the French President. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Dial Press, 1975. 293 p., 24 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0803785143; LC 74020658; M-482; S-5398.



__________.; __________. Target de Gaulle: the thirty-one attempts to assassinate the General. (Translated from the French by Richard Barry). London, G.B.: Corgi, 1976. 410+[8] p., ill., ports., 18 cm.

Translation of: Objectif de Gaulle. (French).

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempts - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

ISBN 0552101435; LC 77367410.



DÉROULÈDE, Arnaud. OAS: étude d'une organisation clandestine. Hélette, France: Curutchet, 1997. 350 p., ill., bibliogr. p. [340]-350, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2904348840; LC 98121521.



GAUCHON, Pascal.; BUISSON, Patrick. OAS: histoire de la résistance française en Algérie. (Préface de Pierre Sergent). Bièvres, France: Jeune Pied-noir, ©1984. 168 p., ill., 32 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

LC 85174413.



GAUVIN, Jean. Le procès Vanuxem. Paris, France: Editions Saint-Just, [1963]. 283 p., 19 cm.

Vanuxem, Paul Fidèle Félicien, 1904-.... - Gingembre, Maurice Henri Jean Marie, 1920-.... - Le Barbier de Blignières, Hervé Paul Marie, 1914-.... - Terrorism--France--Trials, 1963 - France. Cour de Sûreté de l'Etat.

LC 66032089.



GUIBERT, Vincent. Les commandos Delta. Hélette, France: J. Curutchet, 2000. 304 p., ill., bibliography p. [275]-283, index, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète. Delta (Commandos) - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2912932262; LC 2001332854.



HARRISON, Alexander. Challenging De Gaulle: the O.A.S. and the counterrevolution in Algeria, 1954-1962. (Foreword by William Colby). New York, N.Y., U.S.A.; London, G.B.: Praeger, 1989. xxxi+192 p., ill., ports., bibliogr. pp. [165]-167, index, 24 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0275927911; LC 88019008; BL 89037980.



HENISSART, Paul. Wolves in the city: the death of French Algeria. New York, N.Y., U.S.A.: Simon and Schuster, [1970]. 508 p., ills., ports., bibliography p. 483-485, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0671205137; LC 76101877; S-2340.



__________. Wolves in the city: the death of French Algeria. London, G.B.: Hart-Davis, 1971. 508 p., ills., ports., bibliography p. 483-485, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 0246640022; LC 74862602.



JOURON, Patrick. Objectif, de Gaulle. [Orgères-en-Beauce, France]: CCRC, (Evénement et Action), 1986. 205 p., ill., bibliogr. p. 203, 22 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt - Heads of State--France--Offenses - Organisation Armée Secrète.

BF 87009292.



KAUFFER, Rémi. L'O.A.S.: histoire d'une organisation secrète. [Paris, France]: Fayard, 1986. 423 p., facsims., bibliogr., index, 23 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History--Revolution, 1954-1962.

ISBN 2213017263; LC 86214992.



LANCELOT, Marie-Thérèse. L'Organisation Armée secrète. [Vol. 1] Chronologie. [Vol. 2] Documents. [Paris, France]: Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques, (Documents; 2), 1963. 2 Vols., 22x32 cm.

Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History, 1945-1962.

LC 66091959.



Le procès de l'attentat du Petit-Clamart: compte-rendu sténographique. [Vol. 1]: Audiences du 28 janvier au 14 février. [Vol. 2]: Audiences du 15 février au 4 mars. Paris, France: Albin Michel, (Les Grands Procès Contemporains), 1963. 2 Vol. of 1019-iv p., 20 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt--France--Petit Clamart (City) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Trials--Terrorism, 1963.

BF 63006187.



Le procès du Petit-Clamart: exposé des faits, débats, dépositions, réquisitoire, plaidoiries, présentés par Yves-Frédéric Jaffré. Paris, France: Nouvelles Editions Latines, 1963. 643 p., ill., 22 cm.

De Gaulle, Charles, 1890-1970--Assassination Attempt--France--Petit Clamart (City) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Trials--Terrorism, 1963.

BF 63011051.



L'O.A.S. et la presse française. Paris, France: Editions Galic, (L'Histoire au Jour le Jour; 1), [1962]. 158 p., bibliogr., 18 cm.

France - Organisation Armée Secrète - OAS - Terrorism and the Media - Terrorism in the Press.

LC 64042941.



MORLAND.; BARANGE.; MARTINEZ. Histoire de l'Organisation de l'Armée Secrète. Paris, France: René Julliard, [1964]. 605 p., "annexes" p. [569]-605, 20 cm.

Morland, (Pseud.) - Barangé, (Pseud.) - Martinez, (Pseud.) - Organisation Armée Secrète - Algeria--History, 1945-....

LC 67000030; BF 64013458; S-2353; M-1933.
wiki
18-24 april 1955: Bandung Conference
Edited: 195504180861
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The venue in 1955

The building in 2007; now it is a museum of the conference
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on 18-24 April 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia. The twenty-nine countries that participated at the Bandung Conference represented nearly one-quarter of the Earth's land surface and a total population of 1.5 billion people, roughly 54% of the Earth's population at the time.[1][2] The conference was organised by Indonesia, Burma (Myanmar), Pakistan, Ceylon (Sri Lanka), and India and was coordinated by Ruslan Abdulgani, secretary general of the Indonesian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The conference's stated aims were to promote Afro-Asian economic and cultural cooperation and to oppose colonialism or neocolonialism by any nation. The conference was an important step toward the Non-Aligned Movement.

In 2005, on the 50th anniversary of the original conference, leaders from Asian and African countries met in Jakarta and Bandung to launch the New Asian-African Strategic Partnership (NAASP). They pledged to promote political, economic, and cultural cooperation between the two continents.


Contents
1 Background
2 Discussion
3 Participants
4 Declaration
5 United States involvement
6 Outcome and legacy
6.1 Asian-African Summit of 2005
6.2 Other anniversaries
7 See also
8 References
8.1 Bibliography
9 Further reading
10 External links
Background
The conference of Bandung was preceded by the Bogor Conference (1949). The Bogor Conference was the seed for the Colombo Plan and Bandung Conference. The 2nd Bogor Conference was held 28-29 December 1954.[3]

The Bandung Conference reflected what the organisers regarded as a reluctance by the Western powers to consult with them on decisions affecting Asia in a setting of Cold War tensions; their concern over tension between the People's Republic of China and the United States; their desire to lay firmer foundations for China's peace relations with themselves and the West; their opposition to colonialism, especially French influence in North Africa and its colonial rule in Algeria; and Indonesia's desire to promote its case in the dispute with the Netherlands over western New Guinea (Irian Barat).

Sukarno, the first president of the Republic of Indonesia, portrayed himself as the leader of this group of states, which he later described as "NEFOS" (Newly Emerging Forces).[4] His daughter, Megawati Sukarnoputri headed the PDI-P party during both summit anniversaries, and the President of Indonesia Joko Widodo during the 3rd summit was a member of her party.

On 4 December 1954 the United Nations announced that Indonesia had successfully gotten the issue of West New Guinea placed on the agenda of the 1955 General Assembly,[5] plans for the Bandung conference were announced in December 1954.[6]

Discussion

Plenary hall of the conference building
Major debate centered around the question of whether Soviet policies in Eastern Europe and Central Asia should be censured along with Western colonialism. A memo was submitted by 'The Moslem Nations under Soviet Imperialism', accusing the Soviet authorities of massacres and mass deportations in Muslim regions, but it was never debated.[7] A consensus was reached in which "colonialism in all of its manifestations" was condemned, implicitly censuring the Soviet Union, as well as the West.[8] China played an important role in the conference and strengthened its relations with other Asian nations. Having survived an assassination attempt on the way to the conference, the Chinese premier, Zhou Enlai, displayed a moderate and conciliatory attitude that tended to quiet fears of some anticommunist delegates concerning China's intentions.

Later in the conference, Zhou Enlai signed on to the article in the concluding declaration stating that overseas Chinese owed primary loyalty to their home nation, rather than to China – a highly sensitive issue for both his Indonesian hosts and for several other participating countries. Zhou also signed an agreement on dual nationality with Indonesian foreign minister Sunario.

Participants

Countries represented in the Asia-Africa Conference in Bandung, Indonesia in 1955. Twenty-nine independent countries were present, representing over half the world's population. Vietnam is represented twice by both North Vietnam and the State of Vietnam, which became South Vietnam.

Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2012). Light blue states have observer status.
Afghanistan Kingdom of Afghanistan
Burma
Cambodia Kingdom of Cambodia
Dominion of Ceylon
People's Republic of China
Cyprus1
Egypt Republic of Egypt
Ethiopian Empire
Gold Coast
India
Indonesia
Iran Iran
Kingdom of Iraq
Japan
Jordan
Laos Kingdom of Laos
Lebanon
Liberia
Libya Kingdom of Libya
Nepal Kingdom of Nepal
Dominion of Pakistan
Philippines
Saudi Arabia
Syria Syrian Republic
Sudan Republic of the Sudan
Thailand
Turkey
South Vietnam State of Vietnam
Democratic Republic of Vietnam
Yemen Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen
1 A pre-independent colonial Cyprus was represented by [the] eventual first president, Makarios III.[9]

Some nations were given "observer status". Such was the case of Brazil, who sent Ambassador Bezerra de Menezes.

Declaration
A 10-point "declaration on promotion of world peace and cooperation," incorporating the principles of the United Nations Charter was adopted unanimously:

Respect for fundamental human rights and for the purposes and principles of the charter of the United Nations
Respect for the sovereignty and territorial integrity of all nations
Recognition of the equality of all races and of the equality of all nations large and small
Abstention from intervention or interference in the internal affairs of another country
Respect for the right of each nation to defend itself, singly or collectively, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations
(a) Abstention from the use of arrangements of collective defence to serve any particular interests of the big powers
(b) Abstention by any country from exerting pressures on other countries
Refraining from acts or threats of aggression or the use of force against the territorial integrity or political independence of any country
Settlement of all international disputes by peaceful means, such as negotiation, conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement as well as other peaceful means of the parties own choice, in conformity with the charter of the United Nations
Promotion of mutual interests and cooperation
Respect for justice and international obligations.[10]
The final Communique of the Conference underscored the need for developing countries to loosen their economic dependence on the leading industrialised nations by providing technical assistance to one another through the exchange of experts and technical assistance for developmental projects, as well as the exchange of technological know-how and the establishment of regional training and research institutes.

United States involvement
For the US, the Conference accentuated a central dilemma of its Cold War policy: by currying favor with Third World nations by claiming opposition to colonialism, it risked alienating its colonialist European allies.[11] The US security establishment also feared that the Conference would expand China's regional power.[12] In January 1955 the US formed a "Working Group on the Afro-Asian Conference" which included the Operations Coordinating Board (OCB), the Office of Intelligence Research (OIR), the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), and the United States Information Agency (USIA).[13] The OIR and USIA followed a course of "Image Management" for the US, using overt and covert propaganda to portray the US as friendly and to warn participants of the Communist menace.[14]

The United States, at the urging of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles, shunned the conference and was not officially represented. However, the administration issued a series of statements during the lead-up to the Conference. These suggested that the US would provide economic aid, and attempted to reframe the issue of colonialism as a threat by China and the Eastern Bloc.[15]

Representative Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. (D-N.Y.) attended the conference, sponsored by Ebony and Jet magazines instead of the U.S. government.[15] Powell spoke at some length in favor of American foreign policy there which assisted the United States's standing with the Non-Aligned. When Powell returned to the United States, he urged President Dwight D. Eisenhower and Congress to oppose colonialism and pay attention to the priorities of emerging Third World nations.[16]

African American author Richard Wright attended the conference with funding from the Congress for Cultural Freedom. Wright spent about three weeks in Indonesia, devoting a week to attending the conference and the rest of his time to interacting with Indonesian artists and intellectuals in preparation to write several articles and a book on his trip to Indonesia and attendance at the conference. Wright's essays on the trip appeared in several Congress for Cultural Freedom magazines, and his book on the trip was published as The Color Curtain: A Report on the Bandung Conference. Several of the artists and intellectuals with whom Wright interacted (including Mochtar Lubis, Asrul Sani, Sitor Situmorang, and Beb Vuyk) continued discussing Wright's visit after he left Indonesia.[17][18]

Outcome and legacy
The conference was followed by the Afro-Asian People's Solidarity Conference in Cairo[19] in September (1957) and the Belgrade Conference (1961), which led to the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement.[20] In later years, conflicts between the nonaligned nations eroded the solidarity expressed at Bandung.

Asian-African Summit of 2005
To mark the 50th anniversary of The Summit, Heads of State and Government of Asian-African countries attended a new Asian-African Summit from 20–24 April 2005 in Bandung and Jakarta. Some sessions of the new conference took place in Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building), the venue of the original conference. Of the 106 nations invited to the historic summit, 89 were represented by their heads of state or government or ministers.[3] The Summit was attended by 54 Asian and 52 African countries.

The 2005 Asian African Summit yielded, inter-alia, the Declaration of the New Asian–African Strategic Partnership (NAASP),[21] the Joint Ministerial Statement on the NAASP Plan of Action, and the Joint Asian African Leaders’ Statement on Tsunami, Earthquake and other Natural Disasters. The conclusion of aforementioned declaration of NAASP is the Nawasila (nine principles) supporting political, economic, and socio-cultural cooperation.

The Summit concluded a follow-up mechanism for institutionalization process in the form of Summit concurrent with Business Summit every four years, Ministerial Meeting every two years, and Sectoral Ministerial as well as Technical Meeting if deemed necessary.

Other anniversaries
On the 60th anniversary of the Asian-African Conference and the 10th anniversary of the NAASP, a 3rd summit was held in Bandung and Jakarta from 21–25 April 2015, with the theme Strengthening South-South Cooperation to Promote World Peace and Prosperity. Delegates from 109 Asian and African countries, 16 observer countries and 25 international organizations participated.[3]

See also
Asian–African Legal Consultative Organization
Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence
Sino-Indonesian Dual Nationality Treaty
Third World
References
geographer, Matt Rosenberg Matt Rosenberg is a professional; book, writer with over 20 years of experience He is the author of both a geography reference; contests, a guide to winning National Geography Bee. "Current World Population and Future Projections". ThoughtCo. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
Bandung Conference of 1955 and the resurgence of Asia and Africa Archived 13 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine, Daily News, Sri Lanka
"Asian-African Conference timeline". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 September 2017.
Cowie, H.R. (1993). Australia and Asia. A changing Relationship, 18.
United Nations General Assembly, Report of the First Committee A/2831
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), p. 156.
Schindler, Colin (2012). Israel and the European Left. New York: Continuum. p. 205. ISBN 978-1441150134.
"Bandung Conference - Asia-Africa [1955]". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
Cyprus and the Non–Aligned Movement Archived 2016-03-03 at the Wayback Machine, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (April, 2008)
Jayaprakash, N D (June 5, 2005). "India and the Bandung Conference of 1955 – II". People's Democracy – Weekly Organ of the Communist Party of India (Marxist). XXIX (23). Archived from the original on 11 March 2007. Retrieved 2007-02-07.
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), p. 154. "... Bandung presented Washington with a geopolitical quandary. Holding the Cold War line against communism depended on the crumbling European empires. Yet U.S. support for that ancien régime was sure to earn the resentment of Third World nationalists fighting against colonial rule. The Eastern Bloc, facing no such guilt by association, thus did not face the choice Bandung presented to the United States: side with the rising Third World tide, or side with the shaky imperial structures damming it in."
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), p. 155.
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), pp. 157–158.
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), p. 161. "An OCB memorandum of March 28 [...] recounts the efforts by OIR and the working group to distribute intelligence 'on Communist intentions, and [on] suggestions for countering Communist designs.' These were sent to U.S. posts overseas, with instructions to confer with invitee governments, and to brief friendly attendees. Among the latter, 'efforts will be made to exploit [the Bangkok message] through the Thai, Pakistani, and Philippine delegations.' Posts in Japan and Turkey would seek to do likewise. On the media front, the administration briefed members of the American press; '[this] appear[s] to have been instrumental in setting the public tone.' Arrangements had also been made for USIA coverage. In addition, the document refers to budding Anglo-American collaboration in the 'Image Management' effort surrounding Bandung."
Parker, "Small Victory, Missed Chance" (2006), p. 162.
"Adam Clayton Powell Jr". United States House of Representatives. Retrieved February 1, 2015.
Roberts, Brian Russell (2013). Artistic Ambassadors: Literary and International Representation of the New Negro Era. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press. pp. 146–172. ISBN 0813933684.
Roberts, Brian Russell; Foulcher, Keith (2016). Indonesian Notebook: A Sourcebook on Richard Wright and the Bandung Conference. Durham: Duke University Press. ISBN 0822360667.
Mancall, Mark. 1984. China at the Center. p. 427
Nazli Choucri, "The Nonalignment of Afro-Asian States: Policy, Perception, and Behaviour", Canadian Journal of Political Science / Revue canadienne de science politique, Vol. 2, No. 1.(Mar., 1969), pp. 1-17.
"Seniors official meeting" (PDF). MFA of Indonesia. Retrieved 2012-10-01.
Bibliography
Parker, Jason C. "Small Victory, Missed Chance: The Eisenhower Administration, the Bandung Conference, and the Turning of the Cold War." In The Eisenhower Administration, the Third World, and the Globalization of the Cold War. Ed. Kathryn C. Statler & Andrew L. Johns. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006. ISBN 0742553817
Further reading
Asia-Africa Speaks From Bandung. Jakarta: Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia, 1955.
Ampiah, Kweku. The Political and Moral Imperatives of the Bandung Conference of 1955 : the Reactions of the US, UK and Japan. Folkestone, UK : Global Oriental, 2007. ISBN 1-905246-40-4
Brown, Colin. 2012. "The Bandung Conference and Indonesian Foreign Policy", Ch 9 in Anne Booth, Chris Manning and Thee Kian Wie, 2012, Essays in Honour of Joan Hardjono, Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia.
Dinkel, Jürgen, The Non-Aligned Movement. Genesis, Organization and Politics (1927-1992), New Perspectives on the Cold War 5, Brill: Leiden/Boston 2019. ISBN:978-90-04-33613-1
Kahin, George McTurnan. The Asian-African Conference: Bandung, Indonesia, April 1955. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1956.
Lee, Christopher J., ed, Making a World After Empire: The Bandung Moment and Its Political Afterlives. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0896802773
Mackie, Jamie. Bandung 1955: Non-Alignment and Afro-Asian Solidarity. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet, 2005. ISBN 981-4155-49-7
Finnane, Antonia, and Derek McDougall, eds, Bandung 1955: Little Histories. Melbourne: Monash Asia Institute, 2010. ISBN 978-1-876924-73-7
External links
Modern History Sourcebook: Prime Minister Nehru: Speech to Asian-African Conference Political Committee, 1955
Modern History Sourcebook: President Sukarno of Indonesia: Speech at the Opening of the Asian-African Conference, 18 April 1955
"Asian-African Conference: Communiqué; Excerpts" (PDF). Egyptian presidency website. 24 April 1955. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-04-23. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
+Patch (Alexander -), generaal die Leopold III bevrijdde. R.I.P.
Edited: 194511211488
Hij stierf in de USA aan de gevolgen van een longontsteking.

-

Alexander McCarrell Patch Jr. was born in Fort Huachuca, Arizona on November 23rd, 1889, the son of then Captain A. M. Patch Sr. He attended Lehigh University before transferring to the United States Military Academy from which he graduated in 1913. General Patch served during the First World War but came to prominence as a commander during the Second World War. He formed the Americal Division which then served in Guadalcanal in relief of the 1st Marine Division. The XIV Corps under his command lead the final offensive against the Japanese forces there. Patch put down his ideas about leadership with the publication of an article in December, 1943 called “Some Thoughts on Leadership. In 1944, he was transferred to the European Theatre as commander of the 7th Army which landed in southern France in Operation Dragoon. In 1945, he took over the 4th Army. General Alexander M. Patch died of pneumonia on November 21st of the same year.

http://204.218.225.188/GeneralPatchBioN.htm (20031015)

-

Een biografie van Patch verschijnt zeer laat, pas in 1991:
Sandy Patch
A Biography of Lt. Gen. Alexander M. Patch
By William K. Wyant
Foreword by Maj. Gen. John S. Guthrie
Praeger Publishers. New York. 1991. 264 pages
LC 91-8748. ISBN 0-275-93454-3. C3454 $78.95
Available (Status Information Updated 9/26/2003)

** Description **

This is the first biography of one of the most important yet least well-known American military leaders of World War II. Written by a veteran journalist and former staff officer who served under General Patch in the Pacific and Europe, it offers a firsthand account of the general's life, personality, and style of command as well as detailed histories of the military campaigns on which his reputation rests.



As commander of the U.S. Seventh Army, General Patch came to prominence in the Pacific, where he led army and marine troops to victory over the Japanese at Guadalcanal. This achievement earned Patch the coveted assignment of leading the assault on the beaches of southern France in 1944, which was to prepare the way for D-Day and the landing at Normandy. The most important battles of his career, however, came in the winter of 1944-1945, when Patch's Seventh Army was able to foresee and crush the last desperate German counterattack mounted in France and join Patton's troops in the closing months of the war. Patch, who was often overshadowed by Patton's colorful and very public persona, deliberately maintained a low profile throughout the war, earning respect through his decisiveness, acute strategic judgment, and deep concern for the safety of his men. World War II military leadership is an area of growing interest to military historians, biographers, and World War II specialists, and this groundbreaking study provides a comprehensive profile of a relatively unknown but much-revered Army officer.

** Table of Contents **

-- Foreword

-- North Wind in the Vosges

-- Education of an Infantry Officer

-- Trouble and Glory on the Border

-- In France with the American Expeditionary Forces

-- The Piping Time of Peace

-- Test on Guadalcanal

-- Savo Island's Shadow

-- Victory on the Island

-- Home, and Then Back to the Wars

-- Now Thrive the Armorers

-- A Phantom Force at Bouzareah

-- To London and Back--Amid Uncertainty

-- Through the Strait of Bonifacio

-- Courage, mon vieux, le diable est mort...

-- Gauntlet at Montelimar

-- And Some Get Away

-- A Salute to the Lion of Belfort

-- At Epinal: A Personal Tragedy

-- On to Strasbourg--First to Reach the Rhine

-- Strasbourg's Fate in the Balance

-- Emptying the Colmar Pocket

-- Patch Returns to the Offensive

-- Blitzkrieg into Southern Germany, and Victory

-- Hang Up Your Sword and Shield

-- At Last, the Footsteps of the Messengers of Peace

-- Home to Our Mountains

-- Bibliography

-- Index

** Author **

WILLIAM K. WYANT, a retired U.S. Army colonel, was a member of the news staff of the St. Louis Post-Dispatch Washington Bureau for nearly twenty-five years, covering the Pentagon, military affairs, and the White House and working on foreign assignments in India, Central America, and the NATO countries. During World War II he served as Secretary to the General Staff of the Seventh Army under General Alexander Patch.

http://info.greenwood.com/books/0275934/0275934543.html (20031015)

-

Alexander Patch, the son of an army officer, was born in Fort Huachuca, Arizona, United States on 23rd November, 1889. He attended the West Point Military Academy and graduated in 1913 (75/93) and joined the 13th Infantry Regiment in Texas. He saw action in Mexico and in France during the First World War and by 1918 had reached the rank of lieutenant colonel.
After the war Patch studied at the Command and General Staff School at Fort Leavenworth and spent twelve years as Professor of Military Science and Tactics at Staunton. Promoted to colonel he was placed in charge of the recruitment camp at Camp Croft in North Carolina.
After the bombing of Pearl Harbor Patch was promoted to major general and sent to New Caledonia. As head of the 164th Regiment he joined Alexander Vandegrift and his US Marines on Guadalcana on 13th October 1942. Patch led a counter-offensive against the Japanese Army and secured victory on 9th February 1943.
In May 1943 Patch returned to the United States where he was placed in charge of the 4th Corps at Fort Lewis, Washington. He was also given responsibility for the Desert Training Center.
Patch returned to front-line duties when he was placed in charge of the US 7th Army which landed in France near Toulon on 15th August, 1944. His troops advanced up the Rhone Valley and captured the Saar on 15th March 1945. He then went on to force the surrender of German troops under the command of Hermann Balck.
In July 1945 Patch was promoted to lieutenant general and placed in command of the 4th Army based in San Antonio, Texas. Alexander Patch died of pneumonia on 21st November 1945.

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/2WWpatch.htm (20011015)
general enclosure act: rationalisering van grondgebruik en afpaling
Edited: 180100001599
Enclosure

a) What were enclosures?

i) Enclosure meant joining the strips of the open fields to make larger compact units of land. These units were then fenced or hedged off from the next person's land. In this way a farmer had land in one farm, rather than in scattered strips. This brought greater independence. Enclosing land was not new; it dated back to at least the Medieval period.

ii) The areas of England affected by the enclosure movement of this period were mainly the counties of the Midlands, East Anglia and Central Southern England.



b) How was land enclosed?

i) Before about 1740, most villages were enclosed by agreement. This was when the main owners of the land made a private agreement to join their strips together. This may have involved buying some strips from the small farmers to get rid of any possible opposition. Where all the land in a village was owned by one or two people, enclosure by agreement was relatively straightforward. Unfortunately, it is impossible to tell how much land was enclosed in this way, as little documentation was kept.

ii) Where a number of smaller landowners provided determined opposition to enclosure by agreement, an Act of Parliament had to be obtained. This became the accepted procedure after 1750. It had a number of factors in its favour:

- Each enclosure had legal documentation and certification

- It provided the machinery for opposition to be heard

- It allowed the whole of the village to be enclosed at the same time (that is, commons, waste

land, meadows and open fields.) Up to 1750, many villages had been enclosed a little at a time.

iii) Between 1750 and 1850 there were approximately 4,000 Enclosure Acts of Parliament.



c) Why was Parliamentary Enclosure so widespread in the periods 1760-1780 and 1793 to 1815?

i) Between 1760 and 1780, some 900 Enclosure acts were passed. Historians agree that high cereal prices motivated farmers to enclose land in order to produce a greater amount, thereby earning bigger profits. Also, where land was enclosed, landlords could charge tenants higher rents.

ii) The years of the French Wars (1793-1815) saw almost 2,000 Enclosure Acts being passed. This can also be explained by high cereal prices, which were the results of a series of poor harvests and the difficulty of importing foreign corn at a time when Europe was involved in a major war. This led to widespread enclosure with even marginal waste land being enclosed. With enclosures the farmers could grow more food to feed the domestic population and make larger profits.



d) How was an Act of Enclosure obtained?

The process of obtaining an Act of Enclosure was a time consuming activity:

- The starting point was when the owners of between 3/4 and 4/5 of the land in the village decided that they wished to enclose. They then produced a petition giving notice of their intention to the rest of the village.

- From 1774 onwards, this petition had to be fixed to the church door for three consecutive Sundays in late August or early September. Some landowners took the trouble to publish the petition in the local newspaper.

- Following this, a Bill of Enclosure for the village was drafted and it was read twice in the House of Commons.

- A Parliamentary committee then studied the Bill, considered any objections and wrote in any alterations.

- The Bill was then given a third reading in the House of Commons and then passed on to the House of Lords.

- Finally, the Bill was given a Royal Assent and became an Act of Parliament.

Most bills went through the procedure without too much hindrance.



e) What were the General Enclosure Acts?

These Acts were an attempt to simplify the administration of enclosures. In 1801 the first General Enclosure Act was passed. This laid down a model procedure for the enclosure of common lands in particular. The aim was to provide a guide to those who had the job of drafting Enclosure Bills.



In 1836, a second General Enclosure Act was passed. This was concerned with the open fields and it gave local farmers the right to appoint commissioners and to enclose land without direct reference to Parliament. In 1845, a third (and final) Enclosure Act was brought on to the Statute Book. This established a group of 'specialist' commissioners who would travel round to the different villages to supervise the enclosing of land. They then reported back to Parliament and one General Act of Enclosure was passed for all the villages inspected during the course of the year.



f) What was the job of the Parliamentary commissioners and how well did they do their work?

i) Each individual Act of Enclosure stated that a number of commissioners ( Between three and twelve, depending on the amount of land involved) should be appointed to carry out the enclosure.

ii) After this, surveyors and clerks were appointed by the commissioners. The surveyors had to draw up a plan of the village with its open fields and strips. The owners of the strips were recorded on a map. At a series of meetings called by the commissioners, landowners had to make a claim as to how much land they should be awarded under the enclosure. The commissioners then had to decide on the validity of each claim and come to a decision as to who was actually entitled to receive land in the award.

iii) When, finally, the land had been allocated, the surveyors drew up a new map of the village displaying the new enclosures, boundaries between each section of land and the location of new paths and roads. With the new enclosure map went the award, a list of all the landowners allocated land in the enclosed village.

iv) Commissioners, in general, have been accused of malpractice or of favouring the large landowners and aristocracy when allocating land. Historians now think that in most cases, commissioners did their difficult task admirably well and they did consider the claims of the smaller farmer.



g) How much did it cost to enclose a village by Act of Parliament?

The cost of enclosure varied from parish to parish. The amount depended upon the size of the parish and whether it was the whole parish being enclosed or merely the common and waste land. Every farmer who received an allocation of land in the award was obliged to pay a share of the cost. Such costs would have put a heavy burden on some of the smaller landowners who did not possess large amounts of capital.

h) Economic effects of enclosure

i) Social results of enclosure

j) How far was it true that enclosures led to 'rural depopulation'?

It has been claimed that enclosure caused widespread movement of landless labourers from the countryside to the growing industrial towns. There is, however, evidence to contradict this:

- Enclosure usually required more labour, not less. It is likely that the 'landless labourers' would have been employed to build fences, dig ditches, construct roads and new farmhouses.

- Enclosure brought more land under cultivation which needed labour to work it. In arable areas, particularly, men were needed to plough, sow, hoe and harvest the crops. The increased output would have stimulated a number of 'associated' industries such as brewing and milling.

- More stockmen, dairymen and shepherds were needed.

It must be considered doubtful that enclosures caused rural depopulation. Statistics suggest that it was not until the late 19th century that that any widespread exodus from the countryside took place.



k) There was poverty and suffering in the countryside in the period 1790 to 1830. If enclosure on its own did not cause this hardship, what did?

i) In the south and east of England the decline of domestic industries was one factor in bringing about increased poverty. Previously, villagers had supplemented their income by, for example, weaving.

ii) The poor harvests and high prices in the 1790s, although bringing profit to the farmers, brought suffering to the labourers.

iii) Labourers in the areas where enclosure had taken place in the 16th century may well have suffered as they could not find employment in putting up fences etc. iv) It is worth noting that poverty was rife in both open and enclosed villages. Rural poverty was a phenomenon well before enclosures.







©1995-7 Stephane Gray

http://cla.calpoly.edu/~lcall/enclosures.html (20051227)